- NSF-PAR ID:
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
- Page Range / eLocation ID:
- 116 to 125
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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https://doi.org/https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/link_gateway/2019ApJ...878...86A/doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab204bOur recent work demonstrates a correlation between the high-velocity blue edge, vedge, of the ironpeak Fe/Co/Ni H-band emission feature and the optical light curve shape of normal, transitional and sub-luminous type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia). We explain this correlation in terms of SN Ia physics. vedge corresponds to the sharp transition between the complete and incomplete silicon burning regions in the ejecta. It measures the point in velocity space where the outer 56Ni mass fraction, XNi, falls to the order of 0.03-0.10. For a given 56Ni mass, M(56Ni), vedge is sensitive to the specic kinetic energy Ekin(M(56Ni)=MWD) of the corresponding region. Combining vedge with light curve parameters (i.e., sBV , m15;s in B and V ) allows us to distinguish between explosion scenarios. The correlation between vedge and light-curve shape is consistent with explosion models near the Chandrasekhar limit. However, the available sub-MCh WD explosion model based on SN 1999by exhibits velocities which are too large to explain the observations. Finally, the sub-luminous SN 2015bo exhibits signatures of a dynamical merger of two WDs demonstrating diversity among explosion scenarios at the faint end of the SNe Ia population.more » « less
null (Ed.)ABSTRACT Stripped-envelope supernovae (SE-SNe) show a wide variety of photometric and spectroscopic properties. This is due to the different potential formation channels and the stripping mechanism that allows for a large diversity within the progenitors outer envelope compositions. Here, the photometric and spectroscopic observations of SN 2020cpg covering ∼130 d from the explosion date are presented. SN 2020cpg (z = 0.037) is a bright SE-SNe with the B-band peaking at MB = −17.75 ± 0.39 mag and a maximum pseudo-bolometric luminosity of Lmax = 6.03 ± 0.01 × 1042 erg s−1. Spectroscopically, SN 2020cpg displays a weak high- and low-velocity H α feature during the photospheric phase of its evolution, suggesting that it contained a detached hydrogen envelope prior to explosion. From comparisons with spectral models, the mass of hydrogen within the outer envelope was constrained to be ∼0.1 M⊙. From the pseudo-bolometric light curve of SN 2020cpg a 56Ni mass of MNi ∼ 0.27 ± 0.08 M⊙ was determined using an Arnett-like model. The ejecta mass and kinetic energy of SN 2020cpg were determined using an alternative method that compares the light curve of SN 2020cpg and several modelled SE-SNe, resulting in an ejecta mass of Mejc ∼ 5.5 ± 2.0 M⊙ and a kinetic energy of EK ∼ 9.0 ± 3.0 × 1051 erg. The ejected mass indicates a progenitor mass of 18−25 M⊙. The use of the comparative light curve method provides an alternative process to the commonly used Arnett-like model to determine the physical properties of SE-SNe.more » « less
ABSTRACT We present the photometry and spectroscopy of SN 2015an, a type II Supernova (SN) in IC 2367. The recombination phase of the SN lasts up to 120 d, with a decline rate of 1.24 mag/100d, higher than the typical SNe IIP. The SN exhibits bluer colours than most SNe II, indicating higher ejecta temperatures. The absolute V-band magnitude of SN 2015an at 50 d is −16.83 ± 0.04 mag, pretty typical for SNe II. However, the 56Ni mass yield, estimated from the tail V-band light curve to be 0.021 ± 0.010 M⊙, is comparatively low. The spectral properties of SN 2015an are atypical, with low H α expansion velocity and presence of high-velocity component of H α at early phases. Moreover, the continuum exhibits excess blue flux up to 50 d, which is interpreted as a progenitor metallicity effect. The high-velocity feature indicates ejecta-circumstellar material interaction at early phases. The semi-analytical modelling of the bolometric light curve yields a total ejected mass of 12 M⊙, a pre-SN radius of 388 R⊙ and explosion energy of 1.8 foe.more » « less
The abundance distribution in the ejecta of the peculiar slowly declining Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) SN 1999aa is obtained by modelling a time series of optical spectra. Similar to SN 1991T, SN 1999aa was characterized by early-time spectra dominated by Fe iii features and a weak Si ii 6355 Å line, but it exhibited a high-velocity Ca ii H&K line and morphed into a spectroscopically normal SN Ia earlier. Three explosion models are investigated, yielding comparable fits. The innermost layers are dominated by ∼0.3 M⊙ of neutron-rich stable iron-group elements, mostly stable iron. Above that central region lies a 56Ni-dominated shell, extending to $v \approx 11\, 000$–$12\, 000$ km s−1, with mass ∼0.65 M⊙. These inner layers are therefore similar to those of normal SNe Ia. However, the outer layers exhibit composition peculiarities similar to those of SN 1991T: The intermediate-mass elements shell is very thin, containing only ∼0.2 M⊙, and is sharply separated from an outer oxygen-dominated shell, which includes ∼0.22 M⊙. These results imply that burning suddenly stopped in SN 1999aa. This is a feature SN 1999aa shares with SN 1991T, and explains the peculiarities of both SNe, which are quite similar in nature apart from the different luminosities. The spectroscopic path from normal to SN 1991T-like SNe Ia cannot be explained solely by a temperature sequence. It also involves composition layering differences, suggesting variations in the progenitor density structure or in the explosion parameters.
We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of the nearby (
D≈ 28 Mpc) interacting supernova (SN) 2019esa, discovered within hours of explosion and serendipitously observed by the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS). Early, high-cadence light curves from both TESS and the DLT40 survey tightly constrain the time of explosion, and show a 30 day rise to maximum light followed by a near-constant linear decline in luminosity. Optical spectroscopy over the first 40 days revealed a reddened object with narrow Balmer emission lines seen in Type IIn SNe. The slow rise to maximum in the optical light curve combined with the lack of broad H αemission suggest the presence of very optically thick and close circumstellar material (CSM) that quickly decelerated the SN ejecta. This CSM was likely created from a massive star progenitor with an ∼ 0.2 M☉yr−1lost in a previous eruptive episode 3–4 yr before eruption, similar to giant eruptions of luminous blue variable stars. At late times, strong intermediate-width Ca ii, Fe i, and Fe iilines are seen in the optical spectra, identical to those seen in the superluminous interacting SN 2006gy. The strong CSM interaction masks the underlying explosion mechanism in SN 2019esa, but the combination of the luminosity, strength of the H αlines, and mass-loss rate of the progenitor seem to be inconsistent with a Type Ia CSM model and instead point to a core-collapse origin.