skip to main content

Title: The Role of Low-Energy Electron Interactions in cis-Pt(CO)2Br2 Fragmentation
Platinum coordination complexes have found wide applications as chemotherapeutic anticancer drugs in synchronous combination with radiation (chemoradiation) as well as precursors in focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) for nano-scale fabrication. In both applications, low-energy electrons (LEE) play an important role with regard to the fragmentation pathways. In the former case, the high-energy radiation applied creates an abundance of reactive photo- and secondary electrons that determine the reaction paths of the respective radiation sensitizers. In the latter case, low-energy secondary electrons determine the deposition chemistry. In this contribution, we present a combined experimental and theoretical study on the role of LEE interactions in the fragmentation of the Pt(II) coordination compound cis-PtBr2(CO)2. We discuss our results in conjunction with the widely used cancer therapeutic Pt(II) coordination compound cis-Pt(NH3)2Cl2 (cisplatin) and the carbonyl analog Pt(CO)2Cl2, and we show that efficient CO loss through dissociative electron attachment dominates the reactivity of these carbonyl complexes with low-energy electrons, while halogen loss through DEA dominates the reactivity of cis-Pt(NH3)2Cl2.
; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
1904802 1607547
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract The Electron Loss and Fields Investigation with a Spatio-Temporal Ambiguity-Resolving option (ELFIN-STAR, or heretoforth simply: ELFIN) mission comprises two identical 3-Unit (3U) CubeSats on a polar (∼93 ∘ inclination), nearly circular, low-Earth (∼450 km altitude) orbit. Launched on September 15, 2018, ELFIN is expected to have a >2.5 year lifetime. Its primary science objective is to resolve the mechanism of storm-time relativistic electron precipitation, for which electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are a prime candidate. From its ionospheric vantage point, ELFIN uses its unique pitch-angle-resolving capability to determine whether measured relativistic electron pitch-angle and energy spectra within the loss cone bear the characteristic signatures of scattering by EMIC waves or whether such scattering may be due to other processes. Pairing identical ELFIN satellites with slowly-variable along-track separation allows disambiguation of spatial and temporal evolution of the precipitation over minutes-to-tens-of-minutes timescales, faster than the orbit period of a single low-altitude satellite (T orbit ∼ 90 min). Each satellite carries an energetic particle detector for electrons (EPDE) that measures 50 keV to 5 MeV electrons with $\Delta $ Δ E/E < 40% and a fluxgate magnetometer (FGM) on a ∼72 cm boom that measures magnetic field waves (e.g., EMIC waves) in the range from DC tomore »5 Hz Nyquist (nominally) with <0.3 nT/sqrt(Hz) noise at 1 Hz. The spinning satellites (T spin $\,\sim $ ∼ 3 s) are equipped with magnetorquers (air coils) that permit spin-up or -down and reorientation maneuvers. Using those, the spin axis is placed normal to the orbit plane (nominally), allowing full pitch-angle resolution twice per spin. An energetic particle detector for ions (EPDI) measures 250 keV – 5 MeV ions, addressing secondary science. Funded initially by CalSpace and the University Nanosat Program, ELFIN was selected for flight with joint support from NSF and NASA between 2014 and 2018 and launched by the ELaNa XVIII program on a Delta II rocket (with IceSatII as the primary). Mission operations are currently funded by NASA. Working under experienced UCLA mentors, with advice from The Aerospace Corporation and NASA personnel, more than 250 undergraduates have matured the ELFIN implementation strategy; developed the instruments, satellite, and ground systems and operate the two satellites. ELFIN’s already high potential for cutting-edge science return is compounded by concurrent equatorial Heliophysics missions (THEMIS, Arase, Van Allen Probes, MMS) and ground stations. ELFIN’s integrated data analysis approach, rapid dissemination strategies via the SPace Environment Data Analysis System (SPEDAS), and data coordination with the Heliophysics/Geospace System Observatory (H/GSO) optimize science yield, enabling the widest community benefits. Several storm-time events have already been captured and are presented herein to demonstrate ELFIN’s data analysis methods and potential. These form the basis of on-going studies to resolve the primary mission science objective. Broad energy precipitation events, precipitation bands, and microbursts, clearly seen both at dawn and dusk, extend from tens of keV to >1 MeV. This broad energy range of precipitation indicates that multiple waves are providing scattering concurrently. Many observed events show significant backscattered fluxes, which in the past were hard to resolve by equatorial spacecraft or non-pitch-angle-resolving ionospheric missions. These observations suggest that the ionosphere plays a significant role in modifying magnetospheric electron fluxes and wave-particle interactions. Routine data captures starting in February 2020 and lasting for at least another year, approximately the remainder of the mission lifetime, are expected to provide a very rich dataset to address questions even beyond the primary mission science objective.« less
  2. We report the synthesis and reactivity of a model of [Fe]-hydrogenase derived from an anthracene-based scaffold that includes the endogenous, organometallic acyl(methylene) donor. In comparison to other non-scaffolded acyl-containing complexes, the complex described herein retains molecularly well-defined chemistry upon addition of multiple equivalents of exogenous base. Clean deprotonation of the acyl(methylene) C–H bond with a phenolate base results in the formation of a dimeric motif that contains a new Fe–C(methine) bond resulting from coordination of the deprotonated methylene unit to an adjacent iron center. This effective second carbanion in the ligand framework was demonstrated to drive heterolytic H 2 activation across the Fe( ii ) center. However, this process results in reductive elimination and liberation of the ligand to extrude a lower-valent Fe–carbonyl complex. Through a series of isotopic labelling experiments, structural characterization (XRD, XAS), and spectroscopic characterization (IR, NMR, EXAFS), a mechanistic pathway is presented for H 2 /hydride-induced loss of the organometallic acyl unit ( i.e. pyCH 2 –CO → pyCH 3 +CO). The known reduced hydride species [HFe(CO) 4 ] − and [HFe 3 (CO) 11 ] − have been observed as products by 1 H/ 2 H NMR and IR spectroscopies, as well as independent synthesesmore »of PNP[HFe(CO) 4 ]. The former species ( i.e. [HFe(CO) 4 ] − ) is deduced to be the actual hydride transfer agent in the hydride transfer reaction (nominally catalyzed by the title compound) to a biomimetic substrate ([ Tol Im](BAr F ) = fluorinated imidazolium as hydride acceptor). This work provides mechanistic insight into the reasons for lack of functional biomimetic behavior (hydride transfer) in acyl(methylene)pyridine based mimics of [Fe]-hydrogenase.« less
  3. This review article provides a concise overview of electron involvement in DNA radiation damage. The review begins with the various states of radiation-produced electrons: Secondary electrons (SE), low energy electrons (LEE), electrons at near zero kinetic energy in water (quasi-free electrons, (e−qf)) electrons in the process of solvation in water (presolvated electrons, e−pre), and fully solvated electrons (e−aq). A current summary of the structure of e−aq, and its reactions with DNA-model systems is presented. Theoretical works on reduction potentials of DNA-bases were found to be in agreement with experiments. This review points out the proposed role of LEE-induced frank DNA-strand breaks in ion-beam irradiated DNA. The final section presents radiation-produced electron-mediated site-specific formation of oxidative neutral aminyl radicals from azidonucleosides and the evidence of radiosensitization provided by these aminyl radicals in azidonucleoside-incorporated breast cancer cells.
  4. We explore the photochemistry of polymeric carbon nitride (C 3 N 4 ), an archetypal organic photocatalyst, and derivatives of its structural monomer unit, heptazine (Hz). Through spectroscopic studies and computational analysis, we have observed that Hz derivatives can engage in non-innocent hydrogen bonding interactions with hydroxylic species. The photochemistry of these complexes is influenced by intermolecular nπ*/ππ* mixing of non-bonding orbitals of each component and the relative energy of intermolecular charge-transfer (CT) states. Coupling of the former to the latter appears to facilitate proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET), resulting in biradical products. We have also observed that Hz derivatives exhibit an extremely rare inverted singlet/triplet energy splitting (Δ E ST ). In violation of Hund's multiplicity rules, the lowest energy singlet (S 1 ) is stabilized relative to the lowest triplet (T 1 ) electronic excited state. Exploiting this unique inverted Δ E ST character has obvious implications for transformational discoveries in solid-state OLED lighting and photovoltaics. Harnessing this inverted Δ E ST , paired with light-driven intermolecular PCET reactions, may enable molecular transformations relevant for applications ranging from solar energy storage to new classes of non-triplet photoredox catalysts for pharmaceutical development. To this end, we have explored the possibilitymore »of optically controlling the photochemistry of Hz derivatives using ultrafast pump–push–probe spectroscopy. In this case, the excited state branching ratios among locally excited states of the chromophore and the reactive intermolecular CT state can be manipulated with an appropriate secondary “push” excitation pulse. These results indicate that we can predictively redirect chemical reactivity with light in this system, which is an avidly sought achievement in the field of photochemistry. Looking forward, we anticipate future opportunities for controlling heptazine photochemistry, including manipulating PCET reactivity with a diverse array of substrates and optically delivering reducing equivalents with, for example, water as a partial source of electrons and protons. Furthermore, we wholly expect that, over the next decade, materials such as Hz derivatives, that exhibit inverted Δ E ST character, will spawn a significant new research effort in the field of thin-film optoelectronics, where controlling recombination via triplet excitonic states can play a critical role in determining device performance.« less
  5. Statement of Purpose Hybrid nanoparticles in which a polymer is used to stabilize the secondary structure of enzyme provide a means to preserve its activity in non-native environments. This approach is illustrated here with horseradish peroxidase (HRP), an important heme enzyme used in medical diagnostic, biosensing, and biotechnological applications. Polymer chaperones in these polymer-enzyme complex (PEC) nanoparticles can enhance the utility of enzymes in unfavorable environments. Structural analysis of the PECs is a crucial link in the machine-learning driven iterative optimization cycle of polymer synthesis and testing. Here, we discuss the utility of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCMD) for evaluating PECs. Materials and Methods Six polymers were synthesized by automated photoinduced electron/energy transfer-reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (PET-RAFT) polymerization directly in 96-well plates.1 Multiple molar ratios of enzyme:polymer (1:1, 1:5, 1:10, and 1:50) were characterized. HRP was mixed with the polymer and heated to 65 °C for 1 hr to form PECs. Enzyme assay and circular dichroism measurements were performed along with SAXS and QCMD to understand polymer-protein interactions. SAXS data were obtained at NSLS-II beamline 16-ID. Results and Discussion SAXS data were analyzed to determine the radius of gyration (Rg), Porod exponent and pair distancemore »distribution functions (P(r)) (Figure 1). Rg, which corresponds to the size of the PEC nanoparticles, is sensitive to the polydispersity of the solution and does not change significantly in the presence of the polymer GEP1. Notably, the maximal dimension does not change as significantly upon heating to denaturation in the case of the PEC as it does with HRP alone. The effect of denaturation induced by heating seems to depend on the molar ratio of the polymer to enzyme. The Porod exponent, which is related to roughness, decreased from about 4 to 3 upon complexation indicating polymer binding to the enzyme’s surface. These were confirmed by modeling the structures of the HRP, the polymer and the PEC were modeled using DAMMIF/DAMMIN and MONSA (ATSAS software). The changes observed in the structure could be correlated to the measured enzymatic activity. Figure 2 shows the evolution of the PEC when the polymer is deposited onto the enzyme immobilized on Figure 1. P(r) plots for PEC vs. HRP before and after heating, illustrating the increased enzymatic stability due to polymer additives. gold-coated QCM sensors. The plots show the changes in frequency (f) and dissipation (D) with time as HRP is first deposited and is followed by the adsorption of the polymer. Large f and D show that the polymer forms a complex with HRP. Such changes were not observed with negative controls, Pluronics and poly(ethylene glycol). Comparison of the data from free particles in solution with QCM data from immobilized enzymes, shows that the conformation of the complexes in solution and surface-bound HRP could be different. This way, we were able to explore the various states of complex formation under different conditions with different polymers. Figure 2. QCMD data showing the interaction between the immobilized HRP and the polymer. 3rd and 5th harmonics are plotted (blue -f; red-D). Conclusion SAXS and QCMD data show that stabilization of the enzyme activity by inhibiting the unraveling of the secondary structure as seen in size, surface roughness, pair distribution function and percent helicity. Acknowledgment This work was supported by NSF grant 2009942. References [1] Tamasi, M, et al. Adv Intell Syst 2020, 2(2): 1900126.« less