skip to main content

Title: Manufacturing of Soft Magnets using the Fused Filament Fabrication Process
Rare-earth (RE) materials are currently used to fabricate permanent magnets through various additive manufacturing (AM) methods. Fused filament fabrication (FFF) is one of the most commonly used polymer-based AM methods and has recently been used to produce metal-matrix composites, known as “green parts,” using a metal powder-infused filament. The FFF method has gained much attention in various industries including the automotive, aerospace, and medical fields. Therefore, involving RE in the FFF process using magnetic powder-infused filaments promises to result in the fabrication of low-cost, efficient, and complex magnetic components based on application areas. This module introduces the FFF process and provides a case study for high school and technical college students to gain a fundamental understanding of how magnetic powders are infused and how parts are fabricated using this method.
Authors:
;
Editors:
Stoebe, Thomas
Award ID(s):
1601587
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10299364
Journal Name:
MatEDU Resource Center
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Despite recent research efforts improving Additive Manufacturing (AM) systems, quality and reliability of AM built products remains as a challenge. There is a critical need to achieve process parameters optimizing multiple mechanical properties or geometry accuracy measures simultaneously. The challenge is that the optimal value of various objectives may not be achieved concurrently. Most of the existing studies aimed to obtain the optimal process parameters for each objective individually, resulting in duplicate experiments and high costs. In this study we investigated multiple geometry accuracy measures of parts fabricated by Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) system. An integrated framework for systematically designing experiments is proposed to achieve multiple sets of FFF process parameters resulting in optimal geometry integrity. The proposed method is validated using a real world case study. The results show that optimal properties are achieved in a more efficient manner compared with existing methods.
  2. Despite recent research efforts improving Additive Manufacturing (AM) systems, quality and reliability of AM built products remains as a challenge. There is a critical need to achieve process parameters optimizing multiple mechanical properties or geometry accuracy measures simultaneously. The challenge is that the optimal value of various objectives may not be achieved concurrently. Most of the existing studies aimed to obtain the optimal process parameters for each objective individually, resulting in duplicate experiments and high costs. In this study we investigated multiple geometry accuracy measures of parts fabricated by Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) system. An integrated framework for systematically designing experiments is proposed to achieve multiple sets of FFF process parameters resulting in optimal geometry integrity. The proposed method is validated using a real world case study. The results show that optimal properties are achieved in a more efficient manner compared with existing methods.
  3. Part design and process parameters directly influence the spatiotemporal distribution of temperature and associated heat transfer in parts made using additive manufacturing (AM) processes. The temporal evolution of temperature in AM parts is termed herein as thermal profile or thermal history. The thermal profile of the part, in turn, governs the formation of defects, such as porosity and shape distortion. Accordingly, the goal of this work is to understand the effect of the process parameters and the geometry on the thermal profile in AM parts. As a step towards this goal, the objectives of this work are two-fold: (1) to develop and apply a finite element-based framework that captures the transient thermal phenomena in the fused filament fabrication (FFF) additive manufacturing of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) parts, and (2) validate the model-derived thermal profiles with experimental in-process measurements of the temperature trends obtained under different feed rate settings (viz., the translation velocity, also called scan speed or deposition speed, of the extruder on the FFF machine). In the specific context of FFF, this foray is the critical first-step towards understanding how and why the thermal profile directly affects the degree of bonding between adjacent roads (linear track of deposited material),more »which in turn determines the strength of the part, as well as, propensity to form defects, such as delamination. From the experimental validation perspective, we instrumented a Hyrel Hydra FFF machine with three non-contact infrared temperature sensors (thermocouples) located near the nozzle (extruder) of the machine. These sensors measure the surface temperature of a road as it is deposited. Test parts are printed under three different settings of feed rate, and subsequently, the temperature profiles acquired from the infrared thermocouples are juxtaposed against the model-derived temperature profiles. Comparison of the experimental and model-derived thermal profiles confirms a high-degree of correlation therein, with maximum absolute error less than 10%. This work thus presents one of the first efforts in validation of thermal profiles in FFF via in-process sensing. In our future work, we will focus on predicting defects, such as delamination and inter-road porosity based on the thermal profile.

    « less
  4. Abstract Part design and process parameters directly influence the instantaneous spatiotemporal distribution of temperature in parts made using additive manufacturing (AM) processes. The temporal evolution of temperature in AM parts is termed herein as the thermal profile or thermal history. The thermal profile of the part, in turn, governs the formation of defects, such as porosity and shape distortion. Accordingly, the goal of this work is to understand the effect of the process parameters and the geometry on the thermal profile in AM parts. As a step toward this goal, the objectives of this work are two-fold. First, to develop and apply a finite element-based framework that captures the transient thermal phenomena in the fused filament fabrication (FFF) additive manufacturing of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) parts. Second, validate the model-derived thermal profiles with experimental in-process measurements of the temperature trends obtained under different material deposition speeds. In the specific context of FFF, this foray is the critical first-step toward understanding how and why the thermal profile directly affects the degree of bonding between adjacent roads (linear track of deposited material), which in turn determines the strength of the part, as well as, propensity to form defects, such as delamination. Frommore »the experimental validation perspective, we instrumented a Hyrel Hydra FFF machine with three non-contact infrared temperature sensors (thermocouples) located near the nozzle (extruder) of the machine. These sensors measure the surface temperature of a road as it is deposited. Test parts are printed under three different settings of feed rate, and subsequently, the temperature profiles acquired from the infrared thermocouples are juxtaposed against the model-derived temperature profiles. Comparison of the experimental and model-derived thermal profiles confirms a high degree of correlation therein, with a mean absolute percentage error less than 6% (root mean squared error <6 °C). This work thus presents one of the first efforts in validating thermal profiles in FFF via direct in situ measurement of the temperature. In our future work, we will focus on predicting defects, such as delamination and inter-road porosity based on the thermal profile.« less
  5. Additive manufacturing promises to revolutionize manufacturing industries. However, 3D printing of novel build materials is currently limited by constraints inherent to printer designs. In this work, a bench-top powder melt extrusion (PME) 3D printer head was designed and fabricated to print parts directly from powder-based materials rather than filament. The final design of the PME printer head evolved from the Rich Rap Universal Pellet Extruder (RRUPE) design and was realized through an iterative approach. The PME printer was made possible by modifications to the funnel shape, pressure applied to the extrudate by the auger, and hot end structure. Through comparison of parts printed with the PME printer with those from a commercially available fused filament fabrication (FFF) 3D printer using common thermoplastics poly(lactide) (PLA), high impact poly(styrene) (HIPS), and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) powders (< 1 mm in diameter), evaluation of the printer performance was performed. For each build material, the PME printed objects show comparable viscoelastic properties by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) to those of the FFF objects. However, due to a significant difference in printer resolution between PME (X–Y resolution of 0.8 mm and a Z-layer height calibrated to 0.1 mm) and FFF (X–Y resolution of 0.4 mm and a Z-layer heightmore »of 0.18 mm), as well as, an inherently more inconsistent feed of build material for PME than FFF, the resulting print quality, determined by a dimensional analysis and surface roughness comparisons, of the PME printed objects was lower than that of the FFF printed parts based on the print layer uniformity and structure. Further, due to the poorer print resolution and inherent inconsistent build material feed of the PME, the bulk tensile strength and Young’s moduli of the objects printed by PME were lower and more inconsistent (49.2 ± 10.7 MPa and 1620 ± 375 MPa, respectively) than those of FFF printed objects (57.7 ± 2.31 MPa and 2160 ± 179 MPa, respectively). Nevertheless, PME print methods promise an opportunity to provide a platform on which it is possible to rapidly prototype a myriad of thermoplastic materials for 3D printing.« less