skip to main content

Title: QA-GNN: Reasoning with Language Models and Knowledge Graphs for Question Answering
The problem of answering questions using knowledge from pre-trained language models (LMs) and knowledge graphs (KGs) presents two challenges: given a QA context (question and answer choice), methods need to (i) identify relevant knowledge from large KGs, and (ii) perform joint reasoning over the QA context and KG. Here we propose a new model, QA-GNN, which addresses the above challenges through two key innovations: (i) relevance scoring, where we use LMs to estimate the importance of KG nodes relative to the given QA context, and (ii) joint reasoning, where we connect the QA context and KG to form a joint graph, and mutually update their representations through graph-based message passing. We evaluate QA-GNN on the CommonsenseQA and OpenBookQA datasets, and show its improvement over existing LM and LM+KG models, as well as its capability to perform interpretable and structured reasoning, e.g., correctly handling negation in questions.
; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
2030477 1918940 1934578 1835598
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (NAACL)
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Answering complex questions about textual narratives requires reasoning over both stated context and the world knowledge that underlies it. However, pretrained language models (LM), the foundation of most modern QA systems, do not robustly represent latent relationships between concepts, which is necessary for reasoning. While knowledge graphs (KG) are often used to augment LMs with structured representations of world knowledge, it remains an open question how to effectively fuse and reason over the KG representations and the language context, which provides situational constraints and nuances. In this work, we propose GreaseLM, a new model that fuses encoded representations from pretrained LMs and graph neural networks over multiple layers of modality interaction operations. Information from both modalities propagates to the other, allowing language context representations to be grounded by structured world knowledge, and allowing linguistic nuances (e.g., negation, hedging) in the context to inform the graph representations of knowledge. Our results on three benchmarks in the commonsense reasoning (i.e., CommonsenseQA, OpenbookQA) and medical question answering (i.e., MedQA-USMLE) domains demonstrate that GreaseLM can more reliably answer questions that require reasoning over both situational constraints and structured knowledge, even outperforming models 8x larger.
  2. This paper proposes a question-answering (QA) benchmark for spatial reasoning on nat- ural language text which contains more real- istic spatial phenomena not covered by prior work and is challenging for state-of-the-art language models (LM). We propose a distant supervision method to improve on this task. Specifically, we design grammar and reason- ing rules to automatically generate a spatial de- scription of visual scenes and corresponding QA pairs. Experiments show that further pre- training LMs on these automatically generated data significantly improves LMs’ capability on spatial understanding, which in turn helps to better solve two external datasets, bAbI, and boolQ. We hope that this work can foster inves- tigations into more sophisticated models for spatial reasoning over text.
  3. One of the fundamental problems in Artificial Intelligence is to perform complex multi-hop logical reasoning over the facts captured by a knowledge graph (KG). This problem is challenging, because KGs can be massive and incomplete. Recent approaches embed KG entities in a low dimensional space and then use these embeddings to find the answer entities. However, it has been an outstanding challenge of how to handle arbitrary first-order logic (FOL) queries as present methods are limited to only a subset of FOL operators. In particular, the negation operator is not supported. An additional limitation of present methods is also that they cannot naturally model uncertainty. Here, we present BETAE, a probabilistic embedding framework for answering arbitrary FOL queries over KGs. BETAE is the first method that can handle a complete set of first-order logical operations: conjunction (∧), disjunction (∨), and negation (¬). A key insight of BETAE is to use probabilistic distributions with bounded support, specifically the Beta distribution, and embed queries/entities as distributions, which as a consequence allows us to also faithfully model uncertainty. Logical operations are performed in the embedding space by neural operators over the probabilistic embeddings. We demonstrate the performance of BETAE on answering arbitrary FOLmore »queries on three large, incomplete KGs. While being more general, BETAE also increases relative performance by up to 25.4% over the current state-of-the-art KG reasoning methods that can only handle conjunctive queries without negation.« less
  4. The problem of knowledge graph (KG) reasoning has been widely explored by traditional rule-based systems and more recently by knowledge graph embedding methods. While logical rules can capture deterministic behavior in a KG, they are brittle and mining ones that infer facts beyond the known KG is challenging. Probabilistic embedding methods are effective in capturing global soft statistical tendencies and reasoning with them is computationally efficient. While embedding representations learned from rich training data are expressive, incompleteness and sparsity in real-world KGs can impact their effectiveness. We aim to leverage the complementary properties of both methods to develop a hybrid model that learns both high-quality rules and embeddings simultaneously. Our method uses a cross feedback paradigm wherein an embedding model is used to guide the search of a rule mining system to mine rules and infer new facts. These new facts are sampled and further used to refine the embedding model. Experiments on multiple benchmark datasets show the effectiveness of our method over other competitive standalone and hybrid baselines. We also show its efficacy in a sparse KG setting.
  5. Answering complex logical queries on large-scale incomplete knowledge graphs (KGs) is a fundamental yet challenging task. Recently, a promising approach to this problem has been to embed KG entities as well as the query into a vector space such that entities that answer the query are embedded close to the query. However, prior work models queries as single points in the vector space, which is problematic because a complex query represents a potentially large set of its answer entities, but it is unclear how such a set can be represented as a single point. Furthermore, prior work can only handle queries that use conjunctions (^) and existential quantifiers (9). Handling queries with logical disjunctions (_) remains an open problem. Here we propose QUERY2BOX, an embedding-based framework for reasoning over arbitrary queries with ^, _, and 9 operators in massive and incomplete KGs. Our main insight is that queries can be embedded as boxes (i.e., hyper-rectangles), where a set of points inside the box corresponds to a set of answer entities of the query. We show that conjunctions can be naturally represented as intersections of boxes and also prove a negative result that handling disjunctions would require embedding with dimension proportionalmore »to the number of KG entities. However, we show that by transforming queries into a Disjunctive Normal Form, QUERY2BOX is capable of handling arbitrary logical queries with ^, _, 9 in a scalable manner. We demonstrate the effectiveness of QUERY2BOX on three large KGs and show that QUERY2BOX achieves up to 25% relative improvement over the state of the art.« less