skip to main content

Title: Mush, Melts and Metasediments: a History of Rhyolites from the Okataina Volcanic Centre, New Zealand, as Captured in Plagioclase
Abstract The Okataina Volcanic Centre (OVC), located in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand, is a dominantly rhyolitic magmatic system in an arc setting, where eruptions are thought to be driven by mafic recharge. Here, Sr–Pb isotopes, and compositional and textural variations in plagioclase phenocrysts from 10 rhyolitic deposits (two caldera, one immediately post-caldera, four intra-caldera, and three extra-caldera) are used to investigate the OVC magmatic system and identify the sources and assimilants within this diverse mush zone. Plagioclase interiors exhibit normal and reverse zoning, and are commonly in disequilibrium with their accompanying glass, melt inclusions, and whole-rock compositions. This indicates that the crystals nucleated in melts that differed from their carrier magma. In contrast, the outermost rims of crystals exhibit normal zoning that is compositionally consistent with growth in cooling and fractionating melts just prior to eruption. At the intra-crystal scale, the total suite of 87Sr/86Sr ratios are highly variable (0·7042–0·7065 ± 0·0004 average 2SE); however, the majority (95 %) of the crystals are internally homogeneous within error. At whole-crystal scale (where better precision is obtained), 87Sr/86Sr ratios are much more homogeneous (0·70512–0·70543 ± 0·00001 average 2SE) and overlap with their host whole-rock Sr isotopic ratios. Whole-crystal Pb isotopic ratios also largely overlap with more » whole-rock Pb ratios. The plagioclase and whole-rock isotopic compositions indicate significant crustal assimilation (≥20 %) of Torlesse-like metasediments (local basement rock) by a depleted mid-ocean ridge mantle magma source, and Pb isotopes require variable fluid-dominant subduction flux. The new data support previous petrogenetic models for OVC magmas that require crystal growth in compositionally and thermally distinct magmas within a complex of disconnected melt-and-mush reservoirs. These reservoirs were rejuvenated by underplating basaltic magmas that serve as an eruption trigger. However, the outermost rims of the plagioclase imply that interaction between silicic melts and eruption-triggering mafic influx is largely limited to heat and volatile transfer, and results in rapid mobilization and syn-eruption mixing of rhyolitic melts. Finally, relatively uniform isotopic compositions of plagioclase indicate balanced contributions from the crust and mantle over the lifespan of the OVC magmatic system. « less
Authors:
; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
1654275
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10300613
Journal Name:
Journal of Petrology
Volume:
62
Issue:
8
ISSN:
0022-3530
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract We investigate the shallow plumbing system of the Deccan Traps Large Igneous Province using rock and mineral data from Giant Plagioclase Basalt (GPB) lava flows from around the entire province, but with a focus on the Saurashtra Peninsula, the Malwa Plateau, and the base and top of the Western Ghats (WG) lava pile. GPB lavas in the WG typically occur at the transition between chemically distinct basalt formations. Most GPB samples are evolved basalts, with high Fe and Ti contents, and show major and trace elements and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions generally similar to those of previously studied Deccan basalts. Major element modeling suggests that high-Fe, evolved melts typical of GPB basalts may derive from less evolved Deccan basalts by low-pressure fractional crystallization in a generally dry magmatic plumbing system. The basalts are strongly porphyritic, with 6–25% of mm- to cm-sized plagioclase megacrysts, frequently occurring as crystal clots, plus relatively rare olivine and clinopyroxene. The plagioclase crystals are mostly labradoritic, but some show bytownitic cores (general range of anorthite mol%: 78–55). A common feature is a strong Fe enrichment at the plagioclase rims, indicating interaction with an Fe-rich melt similar to that represented by the matrix compositions (FeOt up tomore »16–17 wt%). Plagioclase minor and trace elements and Sr isotopic compositions analyzed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry show evidence of a hybrid and magma mixing origin. In particular, several plagioclase crystals show variable 87Sr/86Sri, which only partially overlaps with the 87Sr/86Sri of the surrounding matrix. Diffusion modeling suggests residence times of decades to centuries for most plagioclase megacrysts. Notably, some plagioclase crystal clots show textural evidence of deformation as recorded by electron back-scatter diffraction analyses and chemical maps, which suggest that the plagioclase megacrysts were deformed in a crystal-rich environment in the presence of melt. We interpret the plagioclase megacrysts as remnants of a crystal mush originally formed in the shallow plumbing system of the Deccan basalts. In this environment, plagioclase acquired a zoned composition due to the arrival of chemically distinct basaltic magmas. Prior to eruption, a rapidly rising but dense Fe-rich magma was capable of disrupting the shallow level crystal mush, remobilizing part of it and carrying a cargo of buoyant plagioclase megacrysts. Our findings suggest that basaltic magmas from the Deccan Traps, and possibly from LIPs in general, are produced within complex transcrustal magmatic plumbing systems with widespread crystal mushes developed in the shallow crust.« less
  2. Puyehue-Cordon Caulle (PCC) is an active volcanic complex located in the SVZ of the Andes that has had three major historic rhyodacitic eruptions with the most recent event in 2011-12. We provide petrologic and geochemical evidence that PCC is underlain by a crystal mush using recently identified basaltic mafic enclaves that highlights the involvement of distinct mafic magma components during the 2011-12 eruption. We suggest the mafic enclaves represent remnants of the crystal-rich mush that get entrained during eruption of the crystal-poor rhyodacite melt lens cap. This architecture requires the basaltic mush to produce rhyodacite through efficient fractionation. The dominant population of enclaves are equigranular, crystal-rich (45-55%), vesiculated (10-20%), and display interlocking grains between phases. Vesicles have complex shapes filling the irregular interlocking textures, while phenocrysts show stepwise normal zoning (uniform plagioclase cores, ~An90, overgrown with weakly zoned rims, ~An60). A second porphyritic population may represent mafic recharge into the system that bypasses the mush unperturbed. The porphyritic enclaves have spherical vesicles and tightly bound primitive mineral compositions (Fo80-86 vs Fo70-86 in the equigranular enclaves). Published geothermobarometry from the 2011-12 rhyodacite suggests shallow magma storage (5-7 km, 100-140 MPa, 895°C), which we compare against newly determined mineral-mineral trace-element partitioning basedmore »thermometry. Our thermometry indicates the equigranular enclaves were stored at ~900-1000°C at the time of eruption suggesting both a compositionally and thermally zoned magma system. We combine this temperature information with trace element data and mass balance calculations from various minerals phases and melt to substantiate our previous hypothesis that the basaltic enclaves can produce rhyodacite given their crystallinity. These estimates may support a spatially connected basaltic crystal-mush underlying a rhyodacite melt lens cap further proving highly efficient rhyolite formation at PCC. PCC’s enclaves present one of the largest compositional gaps on record globally. We compare them to other enclave-bearing systems and how PCC is an important end-member to understand enclaves as well as rhyolite formation.« less
  3. The origins and evolution of small-volume, high-silica intercontinental rhyolites have been attributed to numerous processes such as derivation from granitic partial melts or small melt fractions remaining from fractional crystallization. Investigations into the thermo-chemical-temporal evolution of these rhyolites has provided insights into the storage and differentiation mechanisms of small volume magmas. In the Mineral Mountains, Utah, high-silica rhyolites erupted through Miocene granitoids between ca. 0.8 and 0.5 Ma, and produced numerous domes, obsidian flows, and pyroclastic deposits. Temporally equivalent basalts erupted in the valleys north and east of the Mineral Mountains, hinting at a potential relationship between mafic and felsic volcanic activity. Here we test competing hypotheses. Are the rhyolites products of extreme fractionation of the coeval basalts? Or do they represent anatectic melts of the granitoids through which they erupted? We address these questions through modeling with new whole rock geochemical data and zircon trace element chemistry, thermometry, and U/Pb LA-ICPMS dates. We couple these data with new 40Ar/39Ar eruption ages to improve upon the volcanic stratigraphy and address the recurrence interval for the most evolved rhyolites. Geochemical data from zircon crystals extracted from six domes suggest increasing differentiation with age and eruptive location, however there is minimal evidencemore »for recycling of earlier crystallized zircon. These data suggest that magma batches were isolated from one another and zircon nucleation and crystallization occurred close to the eruption, thus limiting the residence time of the magmas. These data also perhaps suggest that the magmas were generated in small batches within each of the granitoids rather than from a large crystal mush body underlying the region, as seen at large silicic systems. Our preliminary geochemical models and zircon petrochronology eliminate extreme fractionation and favor local anatectic melting of different granitoids as a mechanism to produce chemical signatures observed in the Quaternary rhyolites in the Mineral Mountains.« less
  4. Abstract Two distinct types of rare crystal-rich mafic enclaves have been identified in the rhyolite lava flow from the 2011–12 Cordón Caulle eruption (Southern Andean Volcanic Zone, SVZ). The majority of mafic enclaves are coarsely crystalline with interlocking olivine-clinopyroxene-plagioclase textures and irregular shaped vesicles filling the crystal framework. These enclaves are interpreted as pieces of crystal-rich magma mush underlying a crystal-poor rhyolitic magma body that has fed recent silicic eruptions at Cordón Caulle. A second type of porphyritic enclaves, with restricted mineral chemistry and spherical vesicles, represents small-volume injections into the rhyolite magma. Both types of enclaves are basaltic end-members (up to 9.3 wt% MgO and 50–53 wt% SiO 2 ) in comparison to enclaves erupted globally. The Cordón Caulle enclaves also have one of the largest compositional gaps on record between the basaltic enclaves and the rhyolite host at 17 wt% SiO 2 . Interstitial melt in the coarsely-crystalline enclaves is compositionally identical to their rhyolitic host, suggesting that the crystal-poor rhyolite magma was derived directly from the underlying basaltic magma mush through efficient melt extraction. We suggest the 2011–12 rhyolitic eruption was generated from a primitive basaltic crystal-rich mush that short-circuited the typical full range of magmatic differentiation in a singlemore »step.« less
  5. Abstract The 119 Ma Dinkey Dome pluton in the central Sierra Nevada Batholith is a peraluminous granite and contains magmatic garnet and zircon that are complexly zoned with respect to oxygen isotope ratios. Intracrystalline SIMS analysis tests the relative importance of magmatic differentiation processes vs. partial melting of metasedimentary rocks. Whereas δ18O values of bulk zircon concentrates are uniform across the entire pluton (7.7‰ VSMOW), zircon crystals are zoned in δ18O by up to 1.8‰, and when compared to late garnet, show evidence of changing magma chemistry during multiple interactions of the magma with wall rock during crustal transit. The evolution from an early high-δ18O magma [δ18O(WR) = 9.8‰] toward lower values is shown by high-δ18O zircon cores (7.8‰) and lower δ 18O rims (6.8‰). Garnets from the northwest side of the pluton show a final increase in δ18O with rims reaching 8.1‰. In situ REE measurements show zircon is magmatic and grew before garnets. Additionally, δ18O in garnets from the western side of the pluton are consistently higher (avg = 7.3‰) relative to the west (avg = 5.9‰). These δ18O variations in zircon and garnet record different stages of assimilation and fractional crystallization whereby an initially high-δ18O magma partiallymore »melted low-δ18O wallrock and was subsequently contaminated near the current level of emplacement by higher δ18O melts. Collectively, the comparison of δ18O zoning in garnet and zircon shows how a peraluminous pluton can be constructed from multiple batches of variably contaminated melts, especially in early stages of arc magmatism where magmas encounter significant heterogeneity of wall-rock assemblages. Collectively, peraluminous magmas in the Sierran arc are limited to small <100 km2 plutons that are intimately associated with metasedimentary wall rocks and often surrounded by later and larger metaluminous tonalite and granodiorite plutons. The general associations suggest that early-stage arc magmas sample crustal heterogeneities in small melt batches, but that with progressive invigoration of the arc, such compositions are more effectively blended with mantle melts in source regions. Thus, peraluminous magmas provide important details of the nascent Sierran arc and pre-batholithic crustal structure.« less