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Title: Opium Poppy Mosaic Virus Has an Xrn-Resistant, Translated Subgenomic RNA and a BTE 3′ CITE
ABSTRACT Opium poppy mosaic virus (OPMV) is a recently discovered umbravirus in the family Tombusviridae . OPMV has a plus-sense genomic RNA (gRNA) of 4,241 nucleotides (nt) from which replication protein p35 and p35 extension product p98, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), are expressed. Movement proteins p27 (long distance) and p28 (cell to cell) are expressed from a 1,440-nt subgenomic RNA (sgRNA2). A highly conserved structure was identified just upstream from the sgRNA2 transcription start site in all umbraviruses, which includes a carmovirus consensus sequence, denoting generation by an RdRp-mediated mechanism. OPMV also has a second sgRNA of 1,554 nt (sgRNA1) that starts just downstream of a canonical exoribonuclease-resistant sequence (xrRNA D ). sgRNA1 codes for a 30-kDa protein in vitro that is in frame with p28 and cannot be synthesized in other umbraviruses. Eliminating sgRNA1 or truncating the p30 open reading frame (ORF) without affecting p28 substantially reduced accumulation of OPMV gRNA, suggesting a functional role for the protein. The 652-nt 3′ untranslated region of OPMV contains two 3′ cap-independent translation enhancers (3′ CITEs), a T-shaped structure (TSS) near its 3′ end, and a Barley yellow dwarf virus -like translation element (BTE) in the central region. Only the BTE is functional in luciferase reporter constructs containing gRNA or sgRNA2 5′ sequences in vivo , which differs from how umbravirus 3′ CITEs were used in a previous study. Similarly to most 3′ CITEs, the OPMV BTE links to the 5′ end via a long-distance RNA-RNA interaction. Analysis of 14 BTEs revealed additional conserved sequences and structural features beyond the previously identified 17-nt conserved sequence. IMPORTANCE Opium poppy mosaic virus (OPMV) is an umbravirus in the family Tombusviridae . We determined that OPMV accumulates two similarly sized subgenomic RNAs (sgRNAs), with the smaller known to code for proteins expressed from overlapping open reading frames. The slightly larger sgRNA1 has a 5′ end just upstream from a previously predicted xrRNA D site, identifying this sgRNA as an unusually long product produced by exoribonuclease trimming. Although four umbraviruses have similar predicted xrRNA D sites, only sgRNA1 of OPMV can code for a protein that is an extension product of umbravirus ORF4. Inability to generate the sgRNA or translate this protein was associated with reduced gRNA accumulation in vivo . We also characterized the OPMV BTE structure, a 3′ cap-independent translation enhancer (3′ CITE). Comparisons of 13 BTEs with the OPMV BTE revealed additional stretches of sequence similarity beyond the 17-nt signature sequence, as well as conserved structural features not previously recognized in these 3′ CITEs.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
1818229
NSF-PAR ID:
10300936
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ;
Editor(s):
Dutch, Rebecca Ellis.
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Journal of Virology
Volume:
95
Issue:
9
ISSN:
0022-538X
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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