skip to main content

Title: Efficient electromagnetic transducers for spin-wave devices
Abstract This paper presents a system-level efficiency analysis, a rapid design methodology, and a numerical demonstration of efficient sub-micron, spin-wave transducers in a microwave system. Applications such as Boolean spintronics, analog spin-wave-computing, and magnetic microwave circuits are expected to benefit from this analysis and design approach. These applications have the potential to provide a low-power, magnetic paradigm alternative to modern electronic systems, but they have been stymied by a limited understanding of the microwave, system-level design for spin-wave circuits. This paper proposes an end-to-end microwave/spin-wave system model that permits the use of classical microwave network analysis and matching theory towards analyzing and designing efficient transduction systems. This paper further compares magnetostatic-wave transducer theory to electromagnetic simulations and finds close agreement, indicating that the theory, despite simplifying assumptions, is useful for rapid yet accurate transducer design. It further suggests that the theory, when modified to include the exchange interaction, will also be useful to rapidly and accurately design transducers launching magnons at exchange wavelengths. Comparisons are made between microstrip and co-planar waveguide lines, which are expedient, narrowband, and low-efficiency transducers, and grating and meander lines that are capable of high-efficiency and wideband performance. The paper concludes that efficient microwave-to-spin-wave transducers are more » possible and presents a meander transducer design on YIG capable of launching $$\varvec{\lambda = 500}\,$$ λ = 500 nm spin waves with an efficiency of − 4.45 dB and a 3 dB-bandwidth of 134 MHz. « less
; ; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Scientific Reports
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Josephson Traveling Wave Parametric Amplifiers (J-TWPAs) are promising platforms for realizing broadband quantum-limited amplification of microwave signals. However, substantial gain in such systems is attainable only when strict constraints on phase matching of the signal, idler and pump waves are satisfied -- this is rendered particularly challenging in the presence of nonlinear effects, such as self- and cross-phase modulation, which scale with the intensity of propagating signals. In this work, we present a simple J-TWPA design based on left-handed (negative-index) nonlinear Josephson metamaterial, which realizes autonomous phase matching without the need for any complicated circuit or dispersion engineering. The resultant efficiency of four-wave mixing process can implement gains in excess of 20 dB over few GHz bandwidths with much shorter lines than previous implementations. Furthermore, the autonomous nature of phase matching considerably simplifies the J-TWPA design than previous implementations based on right-handed (positive index) Josephson metamaterials, making the proposed architecture particularly appealing from a fabrication perspective. The left-handed JTL introduced here constitutes a new modality in distributed Josephson circuits, and forms a crucial piece of the unified framework that can be used to inform the optimal design and operation of broadband microwave amplifiers.
  2. We propose an on-chip triply resonant electro-optic modulator architecture for RF-to-optical signal conversion and provide a detailed theoretical analysis of the optimal “circuit-level” device geometries and their performance limits. The designs maximize the RF-optical conversion efficiency through simultaneous resonant enhancement of the RF drive signal, a continuous-wave (CW) optical pump, and the generated optical sideband. The optical pump and sideband are resonantly enhanced in respective supermodes of a two-coupled-cavity optical resonator system, while the RF signal can be enhanced in addition by an LC circuit formed by capacitances of the optical resonator active regions and (integrated) matching inductors. We show that such designs can offer 15-50 dB improvement in conversion efficiency over conventional microring modulators. In the proposed configurations, the photon lifetime (resonance linewidth) limits the instantaneous RF bandwidth of the electro-optic response but does not limit its central RF frequency. The latter is set by the coupling strength between the two coupled cavities and is not subject to the photon lifetime constraint inherent to conventional singly resonant microring modulators. This feature enables efficient operation at high RF carrier frequencies without a reduction in efficiency commonly associated with the photon lifetime limit and accounts for 10-30 dB of the totalmore »improvement. Two optical configurations of the modulator are proposed: a “basic” configuration with equal Q-factors in both supermodes, most suitable for narrowband RF signals, and a “generalized” configuration with independently tailored supermode Q-factors that supports a wider instantaneous bandwidth. A second significant 5-20 dB gain in modulation efficiency is expected from RF drive signal enhancement by integrated LC resonant matching, leading to the total expected improvement of 15-50 dB. Previously studied triply-resonant modulators, with coupled longitudinal (across the free spectral range (FSR)) modes, have large resonant mode volume for typical RF frequencies, which limits the interaction between the optical and RF fields. In contrast, the proposed modulators support maximally tightly confined resonant modes, with strong coupling between the mode fields, which increases and maintains high device efficiency across a range of RF frequencies. The proposed modulator architecture is compact, efficient, capable of modulation at high RF carrier frequencies and can be applied to any cavity design or modulation mechanism. It is also well suited to moderate Q, including silicon, implementations, and may be enabling for future CMOS RF-electronic-photonic systems on chip.

    « less
  3. Acoustic devices have played a major role in telecommunications for decades as the leading technology for filtering in RF and microwave frequencies. While filter requirements for insertion loss and bandwidth become more stringent, more functionality is desired for many applications to improve overall system level performance. For instance, a filter with non-reciprocal transmission can minimize losses due to mismatch and protect the source from reflections while also performing its filtering duties. A device such as this one was originally researched by scientists decades ago. These devices were based on the acoustoelectric effect where surface acoustic waves (SAW) traveling in the same direction are as drift carriers in a nearby semiconductor are amplified. While several experiments were successfully demonstrated in [1], [2], [3]. these devices suffered from extremely high operating electric fields and noise figure [4], [5]. In the past few years, new techniques have been developed for implementing non-reciprocal devices such as isolators and circulators without utilizing magnetic materials [6], [7], [8], [9]. The most popular technique has been spatio-temporal modulation (STM) where commutated clock signals synchronized with delay elements result in non-reciprocal transmission through the network. STM has also been adapted by researchers to create non-reciprocal filters. The workmore »in [10] utilizes 4 clocks signals to obtain a non-reciprocal filter with an insertion loss of -6.6 dB an isolation of 25.4 dB. Another filter demonstrated in [11] utilizes 6 synchronized clock signals to obtain a non-reciprocal filter with an insertion loss of -5.6 dB and an Isolation of 20 dB. In this work, a novel non-reciprocal topology is explored with the use of only one modulation signal. The design is based on asymmetrical SAW delay lines with a parametric amplifier. The device can operate in two different modes: phase coherent mode and phase incoherent mode. In phase coherent mode, the device is capable of over +12 dB of gain and 20.2 dB of isolation. A unique feature of this mode is that the phase of the pump signal can be utilized to tune the frequency response of the filter. Under the phase-incoherent mode, the pump frequency remains constant and the device behaves as a normal filter with non-reciprocal transmission exhibiting over +7 dB of gain and 17.33 dB of isolation. While the tuning capability is lost in this mode, phase-coherence is no longer necessary so the device can be utilized in most filtering applications.« less
  4. This work presents a proof-of-concept demonstration of a novel inductive transducer, the femtoMag, that can be integrated with a lateral-flow assay (LFA) to provide detection and quantification of molecular biomarkers. The femtoMag transducer is manufactured using a low-cost printed circuit board (PCB) technology and can be controlled by relatively inexpensive electronics. It allows rapid high-precision quantification of the number (or amount) of superparamagnetic nanoparticle reporters along the length of an LFA test strip. It has a detection limit of 10−10 emu, which is equivalent to detecting 4 ng of superparamagnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles. The femtoMag was used to quantify the hCG pregnancy hormone by quantifying the number of 200 nm magnetic reporters (superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles embedded into a polymer matrix) immuno-captured within the test line of the LFA strip. A sensitivity of 100 pg/mL has been demonstrated. Upon further design and control electronics improvements, the sensitivity is projected to be better than 10 pg/mL. Analysis suggests that an average of 109 hCG molecules are needed to specifically bind 107 nanoparticles in the test line. The ratio of the number of hCG molecules in the sample to the number of reporters in the test line increases monotonically from 20 tomore »500 as the hCG concentration increases from 0.1 ng/mL to 10 ng/mL. The low-cost easy-to-use femtoMag platform offers high-sensitivity/high-precision target analyte quantification and promises to bring state-of-the-art medical diagnostic tests to the point of care.« less
  5. This article presents a method to monitor corrosion remotely, based on highly nonlinear solitary waves, which are compact and nondispersive. In the study presented in this article, two types of solitary wave transducers were used to monitor accelerated localized corrosion on a steel plate. The first type consists of a chain of spherical particles surmounted by a commercial solenoid wired to, and controlled by, a data acquisition system used to lift and release the first particle of the chain and induce the mechanical impacts and stress waves in the chain. The chain included a piezoelectric wafer disk, also wired to the same data acquisition system, to sense, digitize, and store the propagating waves for post-processing. The second type of transducer was identical to the first one but the data acquisition system was replaced by a wireless node that communicated with a mobile device using a Bluetooth connection. Eight transducers were used to monitor the plate for over a week to detect the onset and progression of localized corrosion. Corrosion detection was performed by extracting a few features from the time waveforms and feeding these features to an outlier analysis algorithm based on the Mahalanobis distance. The results of the experimentmore »showed the effectiveness of the proposed monitoring approach at detecting defects close to the transducers and confirm previous numerical predictions by the authors. The experiments also provided evidence that the performance of the wireless transducers is nearly identical to the performance of their wired counterparts, paving the way to a new paradigm for the structural health monitoring of remote structural components in harsh environments.

    « less