skip to main content

Title: Face description using anisotropic gradient: thermal infrared to visible face recognition
Face recognition technologies have been in high demand in the past few decades due to the increase in human-computer interactions. It is also one of the essential components in interpreting human emotions, intentions, facial expressions for smart environments. This non-intrusive biometric authentication system relies on identifying unique facial features and pairing alike structures for identification and recognition. Application areas of facial recognition systems include homeland and border security, identification for law enforcement, access control to secure networks, authentication for online banking and video surveillance. While it is easy for humans to recognize faces under varying illumination conditions, it is still a challenging task in computer vision. Non-uniform illumination and uncontrolled operating environments can impair the performance of visual-spectrum based recognition systems. To address these difficulties, a novel Anisotropic Gradient Facial Recognition (AGFR) system that is capable of autonomous thermal infrared to visible face recognition is proposed. The main contribution of this paper includes a framework for thermal/fused-thermal-visible to visible face recognition system and a novel human-visual-system inspired thermal-visible image fusion technique. Extensive computer simulations using CARL, IRIS, AT&T, Yale and Yale-B databases demonstrate the efficiency, accuracy, and robustness of the AGFR system. Keywords: Infrared thermal to visible facial recognition, anisotropic gradient, visible-to-visible face recognition, nonuniform illumination face recognition, thermal and visible face fusion method
Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;
Editors:
Agaian, Sos S.; Jassim, Sabah A.
Award ID(s):
1942053
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10309922
Journal Name:
Mobile Multimedia/Image Processing, Security, and Applications 2018
Volume:
10668
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Identifying people in photographs is a critical task in a wide variety of domains, from national security [7] to journalism [14] to human rights investigations [1]. The task is also fundamentally complex and challenging. With the world population at 7.6 billion and growing, the candidate pool is large. Studies of human face recognition ability show that the average person incorrectly identifies two people as similar 20–30% of the time, and trained police detectives do not perform significantly better [11]. Computer vision-based face recognition tools have gained considerable ground and are now widely available commercially, but comparisons to human performance show mixed results at best [2,10,16]. Automated face recognition techniques, while powerful, also have constraints that may be impractical for many real-world contexts. For example, face recognition systems tend to suffer when the target image or reference images have poor quality or resolution, as blemishes or discolorations may be incorrectly recognized as false positives for facial landmarks. Additionally, most face recognition systems ignore some salient facial features, like scars or other skin characteristics, as well as distinctive non-facial features, like ear shape or hair or facial hair styles. This project investigates how we can overcome these limitations to support person identificationmore »tasks. By adjusting confidence thresholds, users of face recognition can generally expect high recall (few false negatives) at the cost of low precision (many false positives). Therefore, we focus our work on the “last mile” of person identification, i.e., helping a user find the correct match among a large set of similarlooking candidates suggested by face recognition. Our approach leverages the powerful capabilities of the human vision system and collaborative sensemaking via crowdsourcing to augment the complementary strengths of automatic face recognition. The result is a novel technology pipeline combining collective intelligence and computer vision. We scope this project to focus on identifying soldiers in photos from the American Civil War era (1861– 1865). An estimated 4,000,000 soldiers fought in the war, and most were photographed at least once, due to decreasing costs, the increasing robustness of the format, and the critical events separating friends and family [17]. Over 150 years later, the identities of most of these portraits have been lost, but as museums and archives increasingly digitize and publish their collections online, the pool of reference photos and information has never been more accessible. Historians, genealogists, and collectors work tirelessly to connect names with faces, using largely manual identification methods [3,9]. Identifying people in historical photos is important for preserving material culture [9], correcting the historical record [13], and recognizing contributions of marginalized groups [4], among other reasons.« less
  2. Face touch is an unconscious human habit. Frequent touching of sensitive/mucosal facial zones (eyes, nose, and mouth) increases health risks by passing pathogens into the body and spreading diseases. Furthermore, accurate monitoring of face touch is critical for behavioral intervention. Existing monitoring systems only capture objects approaching the face, rather than detecting actual touches. As such, these systems are prone to false positives upon hand or object movement in proximity to one's face (e.g., picking up a phone). We present FaceSense, an ear-worn system capable of identifying actual touches and differentiating them between sensitive/mucosal areas from other facial areas. Following a multimodal approach, FaceSense integrates low-resolution thermal images and physiological signals. Thermal sensors sense the thermal infrared signal emitted by an approaching hand, while physiological sensors monitor impedance changes caused by skin deformation during a touch. Processed thermal and physiological signals are fed into a deep learning model (TouchNet) to detect touches and identify the facial zone of the touch. We fabricated prototypes using off-the-shelf hardware and conducted experiments with 14 participants while they perform various daily activities (e.g., drinking, talking). Results show a macro-F1-score of 83.4% for touch detection with leave-one-user-out cross-validation and a macro-F1-score of 90.1% for touchmore »zone identification with a personalized model.« less
  3. Performing a direct match between images from different spectra (i.e., passive infrared and visible) is challenging because each spectrum contains different information pertaining to the subject’s face. In this work, we investigate the benefits and limitations of using synthesized visible face images from thermal ones and vice versa in cross-spectral face recognition systems. For this purpose, we propose utilizing canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and manifold learning dimensionality reduction (LLE). There are four primary contributions of this work. First, we formulate the cross-spectral heterogeneous face matching problem (visible to passive IR) using an image synthesis framework. Second, a new processed database composed of two datasets consistent of separate controlled frontal face subsets (VIS-MWIR and VIS-LWIR) is generated from the original, raw face datasets collected in three different bands (visible, MWIR and LWIR). This multi-band database is constructed using three different methods for preprocessing face images before feature extraction methods are applied. There are: (1) face detection, (2) CSU’s geometric normalization, and (3) our recommended geometric normalization method. Third, a post-synthesis image denoising methodology is applied, which helps alleviate different noise patterns present in synthesized images and improve baseline FR accuracy (i.e. before image synthesis and denoising is applied) in practical heterogeneousmore »FR scenarios. Finally, an extensive experimental study is performed to demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of cross-spectral matching when using our image synthesis and denoising approach. Our results are also compared to a baseline commercial matcher and various academic matchers provided by the CSU’s Face Identification Evaluation System.« less
  4. In this paper we proposed a real-time face mask detection and recognition for CCTV surveillance camera videos. The proposed work consists of six steps: video acquisition and keyframes selection, data augmentation, facial parts segmentation, pixel-based feature extraction, Bag of Visual Words (BoVW) generation, face mask detection, and face recognition. In the first step, a set of keyframes are selected using histogram of gradient (HoG) algorithm. Secondly, data augmentation is involved with three steps as color normalization, illumination correction (CLAHE), and poses normalization (Angular Affine Transformation). In third step, facial parts are segmented using clustering approach i.e. Expectation Maximization with Gaussian Mixture Model (EM-GMM), in which facial regions are segmented into Eyes, Nose, Mouth, Chin, and Forehead. Then, Pixel-based Feature Extraction is performed using Yolo Nano approach, which performance is higher and lightweight model than the Yolo Tiny V2 and Yolo Tiny V3, and extracted features are constructed into Codebook by Hassanat Similarity with K-Nearest neighbor (H-M with KNN) algorithm. For mask detection, L2 distance function is used. The final step is face recognition which is implemented by a Kernel-based Extreme Learning Machine with Slime Mould Optimization (SMO). Experiments conducted using Python IDLE 3.8 for the proposed Yolo Nano model andmore »also previous works as GMM with Deep learning (GMM+DL), Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) with VGGF, Yolo Tiny V2, and Yolo Tiny V3 in terms of various performance metrics.« less
  5. In the ever-changing world of computer security and user authentication, the username/password standard is becoming increasingly outdated. Using the same username and password across multiple accounts and websites leaves a user open to vulnerabilities, and the need to remember multiple usernames and passwords feels very unnecessary in the current digital age. Authentication methods of the future need to be reliable and fast, while maintaining the ability to provide secure access. Augmenting traditional username-password standard with face biometric is proposed in the literature to enhance the user authentication. However, this technique still needs an extensive evaluation study to show how reliable and effective it will be under different settings. Local Binary Pattern (LBP) is a discrete yet powerful texture classification scheme, which works particularly well with image classification for facial recognition. The system proposed here strives to examine and test various LBP configurations to determine their image classification accuracy. The most favorable configurations of LBP should be examined as a potential way to augment the current username and password standard by increasing their security with facial biometrics.