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Title: Simultaneous biochemical and functional phenotyping of single circulating tumor cells using ultrahigh throughput and recovery microfluidic devices
Profiling circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in cancer patients' blood samples is critical to understand the complex and dynamic nature of metastasis. This task is challenged by the fact that CTCs are not only extremely rare in circulation but also highly heterogeneous in their molecular programs and cellular functions. Here we report a combinational approach for the simultaneous biochemical and functional phenotyping of patient-derived CTCs, using an integrated inertial ferrohydrodynamic cell separation (i 2 FCS) method and a single-cell microfluidic migration assay. This combinatorial approach offers unique capability to profile CTCs on the basis of their surface expression and migratory characteristics. We achieve this using the i 2 FCS method that successfully processes whole blood samples in a tumor cell marker and size agnostic manner. The i 2 FCS method enables an ultrahigh blood sample processing throughput of up to 2 × 10 5 cells s −1 with a blood sample flow rate of 60 mL h −1 . Its short processing time (10 minutes for a 10 mL sample), together with a close-to-complete CTC recovery (99.70% recovery rate) and a low WBC contamination (4.07-log depletion rate by removing 99.992% of leukocytes), results in adequate and functional CTCs for subsequent studies more » in the single-cell migration device. For the first time, we employ this new approach to query CTCs with single-cell resolution in accordance with their expression of phenotypic surface markers and migration properties, revealing the dynamic phenotypes and the existence of a high-motility subpopulation of CTCs in blood samples from metastatic lung cancer patients. This method could be adopted to study the biological and clinical value of invasive CTC phenotypes. « less
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Lab on a Chip
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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  1. Methods to separate circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from blood samples were intensively researched in order to understand the metastatic process and develop corresponding clinical assays. However current methods faced challenges that stemmed from CTCs' heterogeneity in their biological markers and physical morphologies. To this end, we developed integrated ferrohydrodynamic cell separation (iFCS), a scheme that separated CTCs independent of their surface antigen expression and physical characteristics. iFCS integrated both diamagnetophoresis of CTCs and magnetophoresis of blood cells together via a magnetic liquid medium, ferrofluid, whose magnetization could be tuned by adjusting its magnetic volume concentration. In this paper, we presented the fundamental theory of iFCS and its specific application in CTC separation. Governing equations of iFCS were developed to guide its optimization process. Three critical parameters that affected iFCS's cell separation performance were determined and validated theoretically and experimentally. These parameters included the sample flow rate, the volumetric concentration of magnetic materials in the ferrofluid, and the gradient of the magnetic flux density. We determined these optimized parameters in an iFCS device that led to a high recovery CTC separation in both spiked and clinical samples.
  2. Rapid and label-free separation of target cells from biological samples provided unique opportunity for disease diagnostics and treatment. However, even with advanced technologies for cell separation, the limited throughput, high cost and low separation resolution still prevented their utility in separating cells with well-defined physical features from a large volume of biological samples. Here we described an ultrahigh-throughput microfluidic technology, termed as inertial-ferrohydrodynamic cell separation (inertial-FCS), that rapidly sorted through over 60 milliliters of samples at a throughput of 100 000 cells per second in a label-free manner, differentiating the cells based on their physical diameter difference with ∼1–2 μm separation resolution. Through the integration of inertial focusing and ferrohydrodynamic separation, we demonstrated that the resulting inertial-FCS devices could separate viable and expandable circulating tumor cells from cancer patients' blood with a high recovery rate and high purity. We also showed that the devices could enrich lymphocytes directly from white blood cells based on their physical morphology without any labeling steps. This label-free method could address the needs of high throughput and high resolution cell separation in circulating tumor cell research and adoptive cell transfer immunotherapy.
  3. We demonstrate a label free and high-throughput microbubble-based acoustic microstreaming technique to isolate rare circulating cells such as circulating cancer associated fibroblasts (cCAFs) in addition to circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and immune cells ( i.e. leukocytes) from clinically diagnosed patients with a capture efficiency of 94% while preserving cell functional integrity within 8 minutes. The microfluidic device is self-pumping and was optimized to increase flow rate and achieve near perfect capturing of rare cells enabled by having a trapping capacity above the acoustic vortex saturation concentration threshold. Our approach enables rapid isolation of CTCs, cCAFs and their associated clusters from blood samples of cancer patients at different stages. By examining the combined role of cCAFs and CTCs in early cancer onset and metastasis progression, the device accurately diagnoses both cancer and the metastatic propensity of breast cancer patients. This was confirmed by flow cytometry where we observed that metastatic breast cancer blood samples had significantly higher percentage of exhausted CD8 + T cells expressing programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1), higher number of CD4 + T regulatory cells and T helper cells. We show for the first time that our lateral cavity acoustic transducers (LCATs)-based approach can thus be developedmore »into a metastatic propensity assay for clinical usage by elucidating cancer immunological responses and the complex relationships between CTCs and its companion tumor microenvironment.« less
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  5. Abstract

    Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most lethal cancers with a high mortality and recurrence rate. Circulating tumor cell (CTC) detection offers various opportunities to advance early detection and monitoring of HCC tumors which is crucial for improving patient outcome. We developed and optimized a novel Labyrinth microfluidic device to efficiently isolate CTCs from peripheral blood of HCC patients. CTCs were identified in 88.1% of the HCC patients over different tumor stages. The CTC positivity rate was significantly higher in patients with more advanced HCC stages. In addition, 71.4% of the HCC patients demonstrated CTCs positive for cancer stem cell marker, CD44, suggesting that the major population of CTCs could possess stemness properties to facilitate tumor cell survival and dissemination. Furthermore, 55% of the patients had the presence of circulating tumor microemboli (CTM) which also correlated with advanced HCC stage, indicating the association of CTM with tumor progression. Our results show effective CTC capture from HCC patients, presenting a new method for future noninvasive screening and surveillance strategies. Importantly, the detection of CTCs with stemness markers and CTM provides unique insights into the biology of CTCs and their mechanisms influencing metastasis, recurrence and therapeutic resistance.