Although consumer drones have been used in many attacks, besides specific methods such as jamming, very little research has been conducted on systematical methods to counter these drones. In this paper, we develop generic methods to compromise drone position control algorithms in order to make malicious drones deviate from their targets. Taking advantage of existing methods to remotely manipulate drone sensors through cyber or physical attacks (e.g., , ), we exploited the weaknesses of position estimation and autopilot controller algorithms on consumer drones in the proposed attacks. For compromising drone position control, we first designed two state estimation attacks: a maximum False Data Injection (FDI) attack and a generic FDI attack that compromised the Kalman-Filter-based position estimation (arguably the most popular method). Furthermore, based on the above attacks, we proposed two attacks on autopilot-based navigation, to compromise the actual position of a malicious drone. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first piece of work in this area. Our analysis and simulation results show that the proposed attacks can significantly affect the position estimation and the actual positions of drones. We also proposed potential countermeasures to address these attacks.
Accurately Redirecting a Malicious Drone
Although some existing counterdrone measures can disrupt the invasion of certain consumer drone, to the best of our knowledge, none of them can accurately redirect it to a given location for defense. In this paper, we proposed a Drone Position Manipulation (DPM) attack to address this issue by utilizing the vulnerabilities of control and navigation algorithms used on consumer drones. As such drones usually depend on GPS for autopiloting, we carefully spoof GPS signals based on where we want to redirect a drone to, such that we indirectly affect its position estimates that are used by its navigation algorithm. By carefully manipulating these states, we make a drone gradually move to a path based on our requirements. This unique attack exploits the entire stack of sensing, state estimation, and navigation control together for quantitative manipulation of flight paths, different from all existing methods. In addition, we have formally analyzed the feasible range of redirected destinations for a given target. Our evaluation on open-source ArduPilot system shows that DPM is able to not only accurately lead a drone to a redirected destination but also achieve a large redirection range.
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- IEEE Consumer Communications and Networking Conference (CCNC)
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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