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Title: Two plastid POLLUX ion channel-like proteins are required for stress-triggered stromal Ca2+release
Abstract Two decades ago, large cation currents were discovered in the envelope membranes of Pisum sativum L. (pea) chloroplasts. The deduced K+-permeable channel was coined fast-activating chloroplast cation channel but its molecular identity remained elusive. To reveal candidates, we mined proteomic datasets of isolated pea envelopes. Our search uncovered distant members of the nuclear POLLUX ion channel family. Since pea is not amenable to molecular genetics, we used Arabidopsis thaliana to characterize the two gene homologs. Using several independent approaches, we show that both candidates localize to the chloroplast envelope membrane. The proteins, designated PLASTID ENVELOPE ION CHANNELS (PEC1/2), form oligomers with regulator of K+ conductance domains protruding into the intermembrane space. Heterologous expression of PEC1/2 rescues yeast mutants deficient in K+ uptake. Nuclear POLLUX ion channels cofunction with Ca2+ channels to generate Ca2+ signals, critical for establishing mycorrhizal symbiosis and root development. Chloroplasts also exhibit Ca2+ transients in the stroma, probably to relay abiotic and biotic cues between plastids and the nucleus via the cytosol. Our results show that pec1pec2 loss-of-function double mutants fail to trigger the characteristic stromal Ca2+ release observed in wild-type plants exposed to external stress stimuli. Besides this molecular abnormality, pec1pec2 double mutants do not more » show obvious phenotypes. Future studies of PEC proteins will help to decipher the plant’s stress-related Ca2+ signaling network and the role of plastids. More importantly, the discovery of PECs in the envelope membrane is another critical step towards completing the chloroplast ion transport protein inventory. « less
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Award ID(s):
1847382 1553506 1828266
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Plant Physiology
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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