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- Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence
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- National Science Foundation
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Despite the large efforts made by the ocean modeling community, such as the GODAE (Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment), which started in 1997 and was renamed as OceanPredict in 2019, the prediction of ocean currents has remained a challenge until the present day—particularly in ocean regions that are characterized by rapid changes in their circulation due to changes in atmospheric forcing or due to the release of available potential energy through the development of instabilities. Ocean numerical models’ useful forecast window is no longer than two days over a given area with the best initialization possible. Predictions quickly diverge from the observational field throughout the water and become unreliable, despite the fact that they can simulate the observed dynamics through other variables such as temperature, salinity and sea surface height. Numerical methods such as harmonic analysis are used to predict both short- and long-term tidal currents with significant accuracy. However, they are limited to the areas where the tide was measured. In this study, a new approach to ocean current prediction based on deep learning is proposed. This method is evaluated on the measured energetic currents of the Gulf of Mexico circulation dominated by the Loop Current (LC) at multiple spatial and temporal scales. The approach taken herein consists of dividing the velocity tensor into planes perpendicular to each of the three Cartesian coordinate system directions. A Long Short-Term Memory Recurrent Neural Network, which is best suited to handling long-term dependencies in the data, was thus used to predict the evolution of the velocity field in each plane, along each of the three directions. The predicted tensors, made of the planes perpendicular to each Cartesian direction, revealed that the model’s prediction skills were best for the flow field in the planes perpendicular to the direction of prediction. Furthermore, the fusion of all three predicted tensors significantly increased the overall skills of the flow prediction over the individual model’s predictions. The useful forecast period of this new model was greater than 4 days with a root mean square error less than 0.05 cm·s−1 and a correlation coefficient of 0.6.more » « less
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A divide-and-conquer (DAC) machine learning approach was first proposed by Wang et al. to forecast the sea surface height (SSH) of the Loop Current System (LCS) in the Gulf of Mexico. In this DAC approach, the forecast domain was divided into non-overlapping partitions, each of which had their own prediction model. The full domain SSH prediction was recovered by interpolating the SSH across each partition boundaries. Although the original DAC model was able to predict the LCS evolution and eddy shedding more than two months and three months in advance, respectively, growing errors at the partition boundaries negatively affected the model forecasting skills. In the study herein, a new partitioning method, which consists of overlapping partitions is presented. The region of interest is divided into 50%-overlapping partitions. At each prediction step, the SSH value at each point is computed from overlapping partitions, which significantly reduces the occurrence of unrealistic SSH features at partition boundaries. This new approach led to a significant improvement of the overall model performance both in terms of features prediction such as the location of the LC eddy SSH contours but also in terms of event prediction, such as the LC ring separation. We observed an approximate 12% decrease in error over a 10-week prediction, and also show that this method can approximate the location and shedding of eddy Cameron better than the original DAC method.more » « less
The ocean circulation is modulated by meandering currents and eddies. Forecasting their evolution is a key target of operational models, but their forecast skill remains limited. We propose a machine learning approach that improves the output of an ocean circulation model by learning and predicting its systematic biases. This method can be applied a priori to any region, and is tested in the Gulf of Mexico, where the Loop Current (LC) and the large anticyclonic eddies that detach from it are major forecasting targets. The LC dynamics are recurrent and lie on a low‐dimensional dynamical attractor. Building upon the information gained analyzing this low dimensional attractor, we improve the representation of sea surface anomalies in model outputs through information from satellite altimeter data using a Sequence‐to‐Sequence model, which is a special class of Recurrent Neural Network. Building upon the HYCOM‐NCODA analysis system, we deliver a correction to the forecast at the observation resolution. For at least 15 days the proposed method learns to forecast the systematic bias in the HYCOM‐NCODA, outperforming persistence, and improving the forecast. This data‐driven approach is fast and can be implemented as an added step to any dynamical hindcasting or forecasting model. It offers an interesting avenue for further developing hybrid modeling tools. In these tools, fundamental physical conservations are preserved through the integration of partial differential equations which obey them. In addition, the method highlights specific deficiencies of the hindcast system that deserve further investigation in the future.
Short-term forecasts of infectious disease burden can contribute to situational awareness and aid capacity planning. Based on best practice in other fields and recent insights in infectious disease epidemiology, one can maximise the predictive performance of such forecasts if multiple models are combined into an ensemble. Here, we report on the performance of ensembles in predicting COVID-19 cases and deaths across Europe between 08 March 2021 and 07 March 2022.
We used open-source tools to develop a public European COVID-19 Forecast Hub. We invited groups globally to contribute weekly forecasts for COVID-19 cases and deaths reported by a standardised source for 32 countries over the next 1–4 weeks. Teams submitted forecasts from March 2021 using standardised quantiles of the predictive distribution. Each week we created an ensemble forecast, where each predictive quantile was calculated as the equally-weighted average (initially the mean and then from 26th July the median) of all individual models’ predictive quantiles. We measured the performance of each model using the relative Weighted Interval Score (WIS), comparing models’ forecast accuracy relative to all other models. We retrospectively explored alternative methods for ensemble forecasts, including weighted averages based on models’ past predictive performance.
Over 52 weeks, we collected forecasts from 48 unique models. We evaluated 29 models’ forecast scores in comparison to the ensemble model. We found a weekly ensemble had a consistently strong performance across countries over time. Across all horizons and locations, the ensemble performed better on relative WIS than 83% of participating models’ forecasts of incident cases (with a total N=886 predictions from 23 unique models), and 91% of participating models’ forecasts of deaths (N=763 predictions from 20 models). Across a 1–4 week time horizon, ensemble performance declined with longer forecast periods when forecasting cases, but remained stable over 4 weeks for incident death forecasts. In every forecast across 32 countries, the ensemble outperformed most contributing models when forecasting either cases or deaths, frequently outperforming all of its individual component models. Among several choices of ensemble methods we found that the most influential and best choice was to use a median average of models instead of using the mean, regardless of methods of weighting component forecast models.
Our results support the use of combining forecasts from individual models into an ensemble in order to improve predictive performance across epidemiological targets and populations during infectious disease epidemics. Our findings further suggest that median ensemble methods yield better predictive performance more than ones based on means. Our findings also highlight that forecast consumers should place more weight on incident death forecasts than incident case forecasts at forecast horizons greater than 2 weeks.
AA, BH, BL, LWa, MMa, PP, SV funded by National Institutes of Health (NIH) Grant 1R01GM109718, NSF BIG DATA Grant IIS-1633028, NSF Grant No.: OAC-1916805, NSF Expeditions in Computing Grant CCF-1918656, CCF-1917819, NSF RAPID CNS-2028004, NSF RAPID OAC-2027541, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 75D30119C05935, a grant from Google, University of Virginia Strategic Investment Fund award number SIF160, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) under Contract No. HDTRA1-19-D-0007, and respectively Virginia Dept of Health Grant VDH-21-501-0141, VDH-21-501-0143, VDH-21-501-0147, VDH-21-501-0145, VDH-21-501-0146, VDH-21-501-0142, VDH-21-501-0148. AF, AMa, GL funded by SMIGE - Modelli statistici inferenziali per governare l'epidemia, FISR 2020-Covid-19 I Fase, FISR2020IP-00156, Codice Progetto: PRJ-0695. AM, BK, FD, FR, JK, JN, JZ, KN, MG, MR, MS, RB funded by Ministry of Science and Higher Education of Poland with grant 28/WFSN/2021 to the University of Warsaw. BRe, CPe, JLAz funded by Ministerio de Sanidad/ISCIII. BT, PG funded by PERISCOPE European H2020 project, contract number 101016233. CP, DL, EA, MC, SA funded by European Commission - Directorate-General for Communications Networks, Content and Technology through the contract LC-01485746, and Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovacion y Universidades and FEDER, with the project PGC2018-095456-B-I00. DE., MGu funded by Spanish Ministry of Health / REACT-UE (FEDER). DO, GF, IMi, LC funded by Laboratory Directed Research and Development program of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) under project number 20200700ER. DS, ELR, GG, NGR, NW, YW funded by National Institutes of General Medical Sciences (R35GM119582; the content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of NIGMS or the National Institutes of Health). FB, FP funded by InPresa, Lombardy Region, Italy. HG, KS funded by European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. IV funded by Agencia de Qualitat i Avaluacio Sanitaries de Catalunya (AQuAS) through contract 2021-021OE. JDe, SMo, VP funded by Netzwerk Universitatsmedizin (NUM) project egePan (01KX2021). JPB, SH, TH funded by Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF; grant 05M18SIA). KH, MSc, YKh funded by Project SaxoCOV, funded by the German Free State of Saxony. Presentation of data, model results and simulations also funded by the NFDI4Health Task Force COVID-19 (
https://www.nfdi4health.de/task-force-covid-19-2) within the framework of a DFG-project (LO-342/17-1). LP, VE funded by Mathematical and Statistical modelling project (MUNI/A/1615/2020), Online platform for real-time monitoring, analysis and management of epidemic situations (MUNI/11/02202001/2020); VE also supported by RECETOX research infrastructure (Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic: LM2018121), the CETOCOEN EXCELLENCE (CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/17-043/0009632), RECETOX RI project (CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16-013/0001761). NIB funded by Health Protection Research Unit (grant code NIHR200908). SAb, SF funded by Wellcome Trust (210758/Z/18/Z).