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Title: Constraints on deep, CO2-rich degassing at arc volcanoes from solubility experiments on hydrous basaltic andesite of Pavlof Volcano, Alaska Peninsula, at 300 to 1200 MPa
Abstract The solubility of CO2 in hydrous basaltic andesite was examined in fO2-controlled experiments at a temperature of 1125 °C and pressures between 310–1200 MPa. Concentrations of dissolved H2O and CO2 in experimental glasses were determined by ion microprobe calibrated on a subset of run glasses analyzed by high-temperature vacuum manometry. Assuming that the solubility of H2O in mafic melt is relatively well known, estimates of XH2Ofluid and PH2Ofluid in the saturating fluid were modeled, and by difference, values for XCO2fluid and PCO2fluid were obtained (XCO2 ~0.5–0.9); fCO2 could be then calculated from the fluid composition, temperature, and pressure. Dissolved H2O over a range of 2.3–5.5 wt% had no unequivocal influence on the dissolution of CO2 at the pressures and fluid compositions examined. For these H2O concentrations, dissolved CO2 increases with fCO2 following an empirical power-law relation: dissolved CO2 (ppmw) = 14.9−3.5+4.5[fCO2 (MPa)]0.7±0.03. The highest-pressure results plot farthest from this equation but are within its 1 standard-error uncertainty envelope. We compare our experimental data with three recent CO2-H2O solubility models: Papale et al. (2006); Iacono-Marziano et al. (2012); and Ghiorso and Gualda (2015). The Papale et al. (2006) and Iacono-Marizano et al. (2012) models give similar results, both over-predicting the more » solubility of CO2 in a melt of the Pavlof basaltic andesite composition across the fCO2 range, whereas the Ghiorso and Gualda (2015) model under-predicts CO2 solubility. All three solubility models would indicate a strong enhancement of CO2 solubility with increasing dissolved H2O not apparent in our results. We also examine our results in the context of previous high-pressure CO2 solubility experiments on basaltic melts. Dissolved CO2 correlates positively with mole fraction (Na+K+Ca)/Al across a compositional spectrum of trachybasalt-alkali basalt-tholeiite-icelandite-basaltic andesite. Shortcomings of current solubility models for a widespread arc magma type indicate that our understanding of degassing in the deep crust and uppermost mantle remains semi-quantitative. Experimental studies systematically varying concentrations of melt components (Mg, Ca, Na, K, Al, Si) may be necessary to identify solubility reactions, quantify their equilibrium constants, and thereby build an accurate and generally applicable solubility model. « less
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American Mineralogist
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National Science Foundation
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