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Title: Quasi-periodic travelling gravity–capillary waves
We present a numerical study of spatially quasi-periodic travelling waves on the surface of an ideal fluid of infinite depth. This is a generalization of the classic Wilton ripple problem to the case when the ratio of wavenumbers satisfying the dispersion relation is irrational. We propose a conformal mapping formulation of the water wave equations that employs a quasi-periodic variant of the Hilbert transform to compute the normal velocity of the fluid from its velocity potential on the free surface. We develop a Fourier pseudo-spectral discretization of the travelling water wave equations in which one-dimensional quasi-periodic functions are represented by two-dimensional periodic functions on the torus. This leads to an overdetermined nonlinear least-squares problem that we solve using a variant of the Levenberg–Marquardt method. We investigate various properties of quasi-periodic travelling waves, including Fourier resonances, time evolution in conformal space on the torus, asymmetric wave crests, capillary wave patterns that change from one gravity wave trough to the next without repeating and the dependence of wave speed and surface tension on the amplitude parameters that describe a two-parameter family of waves.  more » « less
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Journal of Fluid Mechanics
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National Science Foundation
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  1. Abstract

    We formulate the two-dimensional gravity-capillary water wave equations in a spatially quasi-periodic setting and present a numerical study of solutions of the initial value problem. We propose a Fourier pseudo-spectral discretization of the equations of motion in which one-dimensional quasi-periodic functions are represented by two-dimensional periodic functions on a torus. We adopt a conformal mapping formulation and employ a quasi-periodic version of the Hilbert transform to determine the normal velocity of the free surface. Two methods of time-stepping the initial value problem are proposed, an explicit Runge–Kutta (ERK) method and an exponential time-differencing (ETD) scheme. The ETD approach makes use of the small-scale decomposition to eliminate stiffness due to surface tension. We perform a convergence study to compare the accuracy and efficiency of the methods on a traveling wave test problem. We also present an example of a periodic wave profile containing vertical tangent lines that is set in motion with a quasi-periodic velocity potential. As time evolves, each wave peak evolves differently, and only some of them overturn. Beyond water waves, we argue that spatial quasi-periodicity is a natural setting to study the dynamics of linear and nonlinear waves, offering a third option to the usual modeling assumption that solutions either evolve on a periodic domain or decay at infinity.

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  2. We present a numerical study of spatially quasi-periodic gravity-capillary waves of finite depth in both the initial value problem and travelling wave settings. We adopt a quasi-periodic conformal mapping formulation of the Euler equations, where one-dimensional quasi-periodic functions are represented by periodic functions on a higher-dimensional torus. We compute the time evolution of free surface waves in the presence of a background flow and a quasi-periodic bottom boundary and observe the formation of quasi-periodic patterns on the free surface. Two types of quasi-periodic travelling waves are computed: small-amplitude waves bifurcating from the zero-amplitude solution and larger-amplitude waves bifurcating from finite-amplitude periodic travelling waves. We derive weakly nonlinear approximations of the first type and investigate the associated small-divisor problem. We find that waves of the second type exhibit striking nonlinear behaviour, e.g. the peaks and troughs are shifted non-periodically from the corresponding periodic waves due to the activation of quasi-periodic modes.

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  3. null (Ed.)
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  5. Abstract

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