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- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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Sieve elements (SEs) degrade selected organelles and cytoplasmic structures when they differentiate. According to classical investigations, only smooth ER, mitochondria, sieve element plastids, and, in most cases, P-proteins remain in mature SEs. More recent proteomics and immunohistochemical studies, however, suggested that additional components including a protein-synthesizing machinery and a fully developed actin cytoskeleton operate in mature SEs. These interpretations are at odds with conventional imaging studies. Here we discuss potential causes for these discrepancies, concluding that differentiating SEs may play a role by ‘contaminating’ phloem exudates.
Non-dispersive phloem-protein bodies (NPBs) of Populus trichocarpa consist of a SEOR protein and do not respond to cell wounding and Ca 2+
Differentiating sieve elements in the phloem of angiosperms produce abundant phloem-specific proteins before their protein synthesis machinery is degraded. These P-proteins initially form dense bodies, which disperse into individual filaments when the sieve element matures. In some cases, however, the dense protein agglomerations remain intact and are visible in functional sieve tubes as non-dispersive P-protein bodies, or NPBs. Species exhibiting NPBs are distributed across the entire angiosperm clade. We found that NPBs in the model tree,
Populus trichocarpa, resemble the protein bodies described from other species of the order Malpighiales as they all consist of coaligned tubular fibrils bundled in hexagonal symmetry. NPBs of all Malpighiales tested proved unresponsive to sieve tube wounding and Ca2+. The P. trichocarpaNPBs consisted of a protein encoded by a gene that in the genome database of this species had been annotated as a homolog of SEOR1(sieve element occlusion-related 1) in Arabidopsis. Sequencing of the gene in our plants corroborated this interpretation, and we named the gene PtSEOR1. Previously characterized SEOR proteins form irregular masses of P-protein slime in functional sieve tubes. We conclude that a subgroup of these proteins is involved in the formation of NPBs at least in the Malpighiales, and that these protein bodies have no rolemore »
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Abstract Endomembrane trafficking is essential for all eukaryotic cells. The best-characterized membrane trafficking organelles include the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus, early and recycling endosomes, multivesicular body, or late endosome, lysosome/vacuole, and plasma membrane. Although historically plants have given rise to cell biology, our understanding of membrane trafficking has mainly been shaped by the much more studied mammalian and yeast models. Whereas organelles and major protein families that regulate endomembrane trafficking are largely conserved across all eukaryotes, exciting variations are emerging from advances in plant cell biology research. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge on plant endomembrane trafficking, with a focus on four distinct trafficking pathways: ER-to-Golgi transport, endocytosis, trans-Golgi network-to-vacuole transport, and autophagy. We acknowledge the conservation and commonalities in the trafficking machinery across species, with emphasis on diversity and plant-specific features. Understanding the function of organelles and the trafficking machinery currently nonexistent in well-known model organisms will provide great opportunities to acquire new insights into the fundamental cellular process of membrane trafficking.
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