skip to main content

Title: Recommendations for HCHO and SO2 Retrieval Settings from MAX-DOAS Observations under Different Meteorological Conditions
Recently, the occurrence of fog and haze over China has increased. The retrieval of trace gases from the multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) is challenging under these conditions. In this study, various reported retrieval settings for formaldehyde (HCHO) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are compared to evaluate the performance of these settings under different meteorological conditions (clear day, haze, and fog). The dataset from 1st December 2019 to 31st March 2020 over Nanjing, China, is used in this study. The results indicated that for HCHO, the optimal settings were in the 324.5–359 nm wavelength window with a polynomial order of five. At these settings, the fitting and root mean squared (RMS) errors for column density were considerably improved for haze and fog conditions, and the differential slant column densities (DSCDs) showed more accurate values compared to the DSCDs between 336.5 and 359 nm. For SO2, the optimal settings for retrieval were found to be at 307–328 nm with a polynomial order of five. Here, root mean square (RMS) and fitting errors were significantly lower under all conditions. The observed HCHO and SO2 vertical column densities were significantly lower on fog days compared to clear days, reflecting a decreased chemical production more » of HCHO and aqueous phase oxidation of SO2 in fog droplets. « less
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Remote Sensing
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. The spread of the COVID-19 pandemic and consequent lockdowns all over the world have had various impacts on atmospheric quality. This study aimed to investigate the impact of the lockdown on the air quality of Nanjing, China. The off-axis measurements from state-of-the-art remote-sensing Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscope (MAX-DOAS) were used to observe the trace gases, i.e., Formaldehyde (HCHO), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), and Sulfur Dioxide (SO2), along with the in-situ time series of NO2, SO2 and Ozone (O3). The total dataset covers the span of five months, from 1 December 2019, to 10 May 2020, which comprises of four phases, i.e., the pre lockdown phase (1 December 2019, to 23 January 2020), Phase-1 lockdown (24 January 2020, to 26 February 2020), Phase-2 lockdown (27 February 2020, to 31 March 2020), and post lockdown (1 April 2020, to 10 May 2020). The observed results clearly showed that the concentrations of selected pollutants were lower along with improved air quality during the lockdown periods (Phase-1 and Phase-2) with only the exception of O3, which showed an increasing trend during lockdown. The study concluded that limited anthropogenic activities during the spring festival and lockdown phases improved air quality with a significant reduction ofmore »selected trace gases, i.e., NO2 59%, HCHO 38%, and SO2 33%. We also compared our results with 2019 data for available gases. Our results imply that the air pollutants concentration reduction in 2019 during Phase-2 was insignificant, which was due to the business as usual conditions after the Spring Festival (Phase-1) in 2019. In contrast, a significant contamination reduction was observed during Phase-2 in 2020 with the enforcement of a Level-II response in lockdown conditions i.e., the easing of the lockdown situation in some sectors during a specific interval of time. The observed ratio of HCHO to NO2 showed that tropospheric ozone production involved Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) limited scenarios.« less
  2. Abstract
    Excessive phosphorus (P) applications to croplands can contribute to eutrophication of surface waters through surface runoff and subsurface (leaching) losses. We analyzed leaching losses of total dissolved P (TDP) from no-till corn, hybrid poplar (Populus nigra X P. maximowiczii), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), miscanthus (Miscanthus giganteus), native grasses, and restored prairie, all planted in 2008 on former cropland in Michigan, USA. All crops except corn (13 kg P ha−1 year−1) were grown without P fertilization. Biomass was harvested at the end of each growing season except for poplar. Soil water at 1.2 m depth was sampled weekly to biweekly for TDP determination during March–November 2009–2016 using tension lysimeters. Soil test P (0–25 cm depth) was measured every autumn. Soil water TDP concentrations were usually below levels where eutrophication of surface waters is frequently observed (> 0.02 mg L−1) but often higher than in deep groundwater or nearby streams and lakes. Rates of P leaching, estimated from measured concentrations and modeled drainage, did not differ statistically among cropping systems across years; 7-year cropping system means ranged from 0.035 to 0.072 kg P ha−1 year−1 with large interannual variation. Leached P was positively related to STP, which decreased over the 7 years in all systems. These results indicate that both P-fertilized and unfertilized cropping systems mayMore>>
  3. Using meteorological observation data and NCEP/NCAR (National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research) reanalysis data, the impacts of the atmospheric circulation pattern on the interannual variability of haze-fog in northern China in January are studied by means of statistical methods. The results showed that the Eurasian teleconnection (EU) at the 500 hPa isostatic surface is the most important pattern affecting the haze-fog frequency in northern China. However, the existing EU index cannot perfectly describe this pattern. To this end, this study selects three main activity centers to define a new EU index, which are located in the Europe (10 °E, 55 °N), Siberia (80 °E, 60 °N), and Shandong, China (120 °E, 40 °N). The difference between the existing EU index and the new EU index is mainly the position of the anomaly center of the 500 hPa geopotential height. The EU is in a negative phase in higher haze-fog years but is in a positive phase in lower haze-fog years. The 500 hPa geopotential height shows negative anomalies in Europe and East Asian and a positive anomaly in Siberia in the negative EU phase. Using Plumb wave activity flux analysis, it was found that the cold wavemore »affecting northern China is less in the negative EU phase than that in the positive EU phase, which resulted in more haze-fog days. In addition, the results also showed that the EU pattern goes through a considerable development and decay within 13 days. The visibility starts to significantly decrease at a lag of −1 to 2 days in the negative EU peak phase and is influenced by the weak north wind that is caused by the high pressure.« less
  4. Abstract Background The spatiotemporal variation of observed trace gases (NO 2 , SO 2 , O 3 ) and particulate matter (PM 2.5 , PM 10 ) were investigated over cities of Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region including Nanjing, Hefei, Shanghai and Hangzhou. Furthermore, the characteristics of different pollution episodes, i.e., haze events (visibility < 7 km, relative humidity < 80%, and PM 2.5  > 40 µg/m 3 ) and complex pollution episodes (PM 2.5  > 35 µg/m 3 and O 3  > 160 µg/m 3 ) were studied over the cities of the YRD region. The impact of China clean air action plan on concentration of aerosols and trace gases is examined. The impacts of trans-boundary pollution and different meteorological conditions were also examined. Results The highest annual mean concentrations of PM 2.5 , PM 10 , NO 2 and O 3 were found for 2019 over all the cities. The annual mean concentrations of PM 2.5 , PM 10 , and NO 2 showed continuous declines from 2019 to 2021 due to emission control measures and implementation of the Clean Air Action plan over all the cities of the YRD region. The annual mean O 3 levels showed a decline in 2020 over all the cities ofmore »YRD region, which is unprecedented since the beginning of the China’s National environmental monitoring program since 2013. However, a slight increase in annual O 3 was observed in 2021. The highest overall means of PM 2.5 , PM 10 , SO 2 , and NO 2 were observed over Hefei, whereas the highest O 3 levels were found in Nanjing. Despite the strict control measures, PM 2.5 and PM 10 concentrations exceeded the Grade-1 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) and WHO (World Health Organization) guidelines over all the cities of the YRD region. The number of haze days was higher in Hefei and Nanjing, whereas the complex pollution episodes or concurrent occurrence of O 3 and PM 2.5 pollution days were higher in Hangzhou and Shanghai. The in situ data for SO 2 and NO 2 showed strong correlation with Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) satellite data. Conclusions Despite the observed reductions in primary pollutants concentrations, the secondary pollutants formation is still a concern for major metropolises. The increase in temperature and lower relative humidity favors the accumulation of O 3 , while low temperature, low wind speeds and lower relative humidity favor the accumulation of primary pollutants. This study depicts different air pollution problems for different cities inside a region. Therefore, there is a dire need to continuous monitoring and analysis of air quality parameters and design city-specific policies and action plans to effectively deal with the metropolitan pollution.« less
  5. Abstract. Radiation fogs at Summit Station, Greenland (72.58&thinsp;N,38.48&thinsp;W; 3210&thinsp;m&thinsp;a.s.l.), are frequently reported by observers. Thefogs are often accompanied by fogbows, indicating the particles are composedof liquid; and because of the low temperatures at Summit, this liquid issupercooled. Here we analyze the formation of these fogs as well as theirphysical and radiative properties. In situ observations of particle size anddroplet number concentration were made using scattering spectrometers near 2 and 10&thinsp;m height from 2012 to 2014. These data are complemented bycolocated observations of meteorology, turbulent and radiative fluxes, andremote sensing. We find that liquid fogs occur in all seasons with thehighest frequency in September and a minimum in April. Due to thecharacteristics of the boundary-layer meteorology, the fogs are elevated,forming between 2 and 10&thinsp;m, and the particles then fall toward the surface.The diameter of mature particles is typically 20–25&thinsp;µm in summer.Number concentrations are higher at warmer temperatures and, thus, higher insummer compared to winter. The fogs form at temperatures as warm as −5&thinsp;C, while the coldest form at temperatures approaching −40&thinsp;C. Facilitated by the elevated condensation, in winter two-thirds offogs occurred within a relatively warm layer above the surface when thenear-surface air was belowmore »−40&thinsp;C, as cold as −57&thinsp;C,which is too cold to support liquid water. This implies that fog particlessettling through this layer of cold air freeze in the air column beforecontacting the surface, thereby accumulating at the surface as ice withoutriming. Liquid fogs observed under otherwise clear skies annually imparted1.5&thinsp;W&thinsp;m−2 of cloud radiative forcing (CRF). While this is a smallcontribution to the surface radiation climatology, individual events areinfluential. The mean CRF during liquid fog events was 26&thinsp;W&thinsp;m−2, andwas sometimes much higher. An extreme case study was observed toradiatively force 5&thinsp;C of surface warming during the coldest partof the day, effectively damping the diurnal cycle. At lower elevations ofthe ice sheet where melting is more common, such damping could signal a rolefor fogs in preconditioning the surface for melting later in the day.

    « less