skip to main content

Title: Modelling Effect of Rain on Aerodynamic Performance of the Ahmed Body
Flow around the Ahmed body is a well-recognized benchmark test case used by the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) community for model validation of automobiles. Even though the geometry of the Ahmed body is simple, the flow field around the object is complex due to flow separation and vortex shedding. In this paper, a Discrete Phase Model (DPM) based computational methodology is presented to estimate the effect of rain on aerodynamic performance and is validated with the experimental data that is available in the literature for the NACA64-210 wing section under different rain intensities. With this validated model, we have investigated the Ahmed body under low and high rain intensities for base slant angles of 25 and 35 degrees. The computed drag coefficient for the Ahmed body under rain conditions, are compared with the experimental data from aerodynamic analysis of the Ahmed body without rain, to evaluate the rain effect.
; ; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract Aerosol jet printing (AJP) is a direct-write additive manufacturing technique, which has emerged as a high-resolution method for the fabrication of a broad spectrum of electronic devices. Despite the advantages and critical applications of AJP in the printed-electronics industry, AJP process is intrinsically unstable, complex, and prone to unexpected gradual drifts, which adversely affect the morphology and consequently the functional performance of a printed electronic device. Therefore, in situ process monitoring and control in AJP is an inevitable need. In this respect, in addition to experimental characterization of the AJP process, physical models would be required to explain the underlying aerodynamic phenomena in AJP. The goal of this research work is to establish a physics-based computational platform for prediction of aerosol flow regimes and ultimately, physics-driven control of the AJP process. In pursuit of this goal, the objective is to forward a three-dimensional (3D) compressible, turbulent, multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to investigate the aerodynamics behind: (i) aerosol generation, (ii) aerosol transport, and (iii) aerosol deposition on a moving free surface in the AJP process. The complex geometries of the deposition head as well as the pneumatic atomizer were modeled in the ansys-fluent environment, based on patented designsmore »in addition to accurate measurements, obtained from 3D X-ray micro-computed tomography (μ-CT) imaging. The entire volume of the constructed geometries was subsequently meshed using a mixture of smooth and soft quadrilateral elements, with consideration of layers of inflation to obtain an accurate solution near the walls. A combined approach, based on the density-based and pressure-based Navier–Stokes formation, was adopted to obtain steady-state solutions and to bring the conservation imbalances below a specified linearization tolerance (i.e., 10−6). Turbulence was modeled using the realizable k-ε viscous model with scalable wall functions. A coupled two-phase flow model was, in addition, set up to track a large number of injected particles. The boundary conditions of the CFD model were defined based on experimental sensor data, recorded from the AJP control system. The accuracy of the model was validated using a factorial experiment, composed of AJ-deposition of a silver nanoparticle ink on a polyimide substrate. The outcomes of this study pave the way for the implementation of physics-driven in situ monitoring and control of AJP.« less
  2. Characterization of the thermal gradients within supersonic and hypersonic flows is essential for understanding transition, turbulence, and aerodynamic heating. Developments in novel, impactful non-intrusive techniques are key for enabling flow characterizations of sufficient detail that provide experimental validation datasets for computational simulations. In this work, Resonantly Ionized Photoemission Thermometry (RIPT) signals are directly imaged using an ICCD camera to realize the techniques 1D measurement capability for the first time. The direct imaging scheme presented for oxygen-based RIPT (O2RIPT) uses the previously established calibration data to direct excite various resonant rotational peaks within the S-branch of theC3Π, (v = 2) ← X3Σ(v = 0) absorption band of O2. The efficient ionization of O2liberates electrons that induce electron avalanche ionization of local N2molecules generating N2+, which primarily deexcites via photoemissions of the first negative band ofN2+(B2Σ<#comment/>u+−<#comment/>X2Σ<#comment/>g+). When sufficient lasing energy is used, the ionization region and subsequent photoemission signal is achieved along a 1D line thus, if directly imaged can allow for gas temperature assignments along said line; demonstrated here of up to five centimeters in length. The temperature gradients present within the ensuing shock train of a supersonic under expanded free jet serves as a basis of characterizationmore »for this new RIPT imaging scheme. The O2RIPT results are extensively compared and validated against well-known and established techniques (i.e., CARS and CFD). The direct imaging capability fully realizes the technique’s fundamental potential and is expected to be the standard of implementation going forward. The direct imaging capability can play instrumental roles in future scientific studies that rely upon acute characterization of thermal gradients within a medium that cannot be easily resolved by a point. Furthermore, the removal of the spectrometer greatly reduces the cost, complexity, and optical alignment associated with prior RIPT measurements.

    « less
  3. Abstract Fuel efficiency becomes very important for new vehicles. Therefore, improving the aerodynamics of tires has started to receive increasing interest. While the experimental approaches are time-consuming and costly, numerical methods have been employed to investigate the air flow around tires. Rotating boundary and contact patch are important challenges in the modeling of tire aerodynamics. Therefore, majority of the current modeling approaches are simplified by neglecting the tire deformation and contact patch. In this study, a baseline computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is created for a tire with contact patch. To generate mesh efficiently, a hybrid mesh, which combines hex elements and polyhedral elements, is used. Then, three modeling approaches (rotating wall, multiple reference frame, and sliding mesh) are compared for the modeling of tire rotation. Additionally, three different tire designs are investigated, including smooth tire, grooved tire, and grooved tire with open rim. The predicted results of the baseline model agree well with the measured data. Additionally, the hybrid mesh shows to be efficient and to generate accurate results. The CFD model tends to overpredict the drag of a rotating tire with contact patch. Sliding mesh approach generated more accurate predictions than the rotating wall and multiple reference framemore »approaches. For different tire designs, tire with open rim has the highest drag. It is believed that the methodology presented in this study will help in designing new tires with high aerodynamic performance.« less
  4. Abstract An increasingly common power saving practice in data center thermal management is to swap out air cooling unit blower fans with electronically commutated plug fans, Although, both are centrifugal blowers. The blade design changes: forward versus backward curved with peak static efficiencies of 60% and 75%, respectively, which results in operation power savings. The side effects of which are not fully understood. Therefore, it has become necessary to develop an overall understanding of backward curved blowers and compare the resulting flow, pressure, and temperature fields with forwarding curved ones in which the induced fields are characterized, compared, and visualized in a reference data center which may aid data center planning and operation when making the decisions of which computer room air handler (CRAH) technology to be used. In this study, experimental and numerical characterization of backward curved blowers is introduced. Then, a physics-based computational fluid dynamics model is built using the 6sigmaroom tool to predict/simulate the measured fields. Five different scenarios were applied at the room level for the experimental characterization of the cooling units and another two scenarios were applied for comparison and illustration of the interaction between different CRAH technologies. Four scenarios were used to characterize amore »CRAH with backward curved blowers, during which a CRAH with forwarding curved was powered off. An alternate arrangement was examined to quantify the effect of possible flow constraints on the backward curved blower's performance. Then parametric and sensitivity of the baseline modeling are investigated and considered. Different operating conditions are applied at the room level for experimental characterization, comparison, and illustration of the interaction between different CRAH technologies. The measured data is plotted and compared with the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model assessment to visualize the fields of interest. The results show that the fields are highly dependent on CRAH technology. The tile to CRAH airflow ratios for the flow constraints of scenarios 1, 2, 3, and 4 are 85.5%, 83.9%, 61%, and 59%, respectively. The corresponding leakage ratios are 14.5%, 16%, 38.9%, and 41%, respectively. Furthermore, the validated CFD model was used to investigate and compare the airflow pattern and plenum pressure distribution. Lastly, it is notable that a potential side effect of backward curved technology is the creation of an airflow dead zone.« less
  5. Polymer optical fibers (POFs) are playing an important role in industrial applications nowadays due to their ease of handling and resilience to bending and environmental effects. A POF can tolerate a bending radius of less than 20 mm, it can work in environments with temperatures ranging from −55 °C to +105 °C, and its lifetime is around 20 years. In this paper, we propose a novel, rigorous, and efficient computational model to estimate the most important parameters that determine the characteristics of light propagation through a step-index polymer optical fiber (SI-POF). The model uses attenuation, diffusion, and mode group delay as functions of the propagation angle to characterize the optical power transmission in the SI-POF. Taking into consideration the mode group delay allows us to generalize the computational model to be applicable to POFs with different index profiles. In particular, we use experimental measurements of spatial distributions and frequency responses to derive accurate parameters for our SI-POF simulation model. The experimental data were measured at different fiber lengths according to the cut-back method. This method consists of taking several measurements such as frequency responses, angular intensity distributions, and optical power measurements over a long length of fiber (>100 m), thenmore »cutting back the fiber while maintaining the same launching conditions and repeating the measurements on the shorter lengths of fiber. The model derivation uses an objective function to minimize the differences between the experimental measurements and the simulated results. The use of the matrix exponential method (MEM) to implement the SI-POF model results in a computationally efficient model that is suitable for POF-based system-level studies. The efficiency gain is due to the independence of the calculation time with respect to the fiber length, in contrast to the classic analytical solutions of the time-dependent power flow equation. The robustness of the proposed model is validated by calculating the goodness-of-fit of the model predictions relative to experimental data.« less