Laser powder bed fusion is a dominant metal 3D printing technology. However, porosity defects remain a challenge for fatigue-sensitive applications. Some porosity is associated with deep and narrow vapor depressions called keyholes, which occur under high-power, low–scan speed laser melting conditions. High-speed x-ray imaging enables operando observation of the detailed formation process of pores in Ti-6Al-4V caused by a critical instability at the keyhole tip. We found that the boundary of the keyhole porosity regime in power-velocity space is sharp and smooth, varying only slightly between the bare plate and powder bed. The critical keyhole instability generates acoustic waves inmore »
This content will become publicly available on April 1, 2023
Laser-beam powder bed fusion of cost-effective non-spherical hydride-dehydride Ti-6Al-4V alloy
Hydride-dehydride (HDH) Ti-6Al-4V powders with non-spherical particle morphology are typically not used in laser-beam powder bed fusion (LB-PBF). Here, HDH powders with two size distributions of 50-120 μm (fine) and 75-175 μm (coarse) are compared for flowability, packing density, and resultant density of the LB-PBF manufactured parts. It is shown that a suitable laser power-velocity-hatch spacing combination can result in part production with a relative density of > 99.5% in LB-PBF of HDH Ti-6Al-4V powder. Size, morphology and spatial distribution of pores are analyzed in 2D. The boundaries of the lack-of-fusion and keyhole porosity formation regimes are assessed and showed that the build rate ratio of 1.5-2 would be attained to produce parts with a relative density of > 99.5%. The synchrotron x-ray high-speed imaging reveals the laser-powder interaction and potential porosity formation mechanism associated with HDH powder. It is found that lower powder packing density of coarse powder and high keyhole fluctuation result in higher fractions of porosity within builds during the LB-PBF process.
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- Additive manufacturing
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- National Science Foundation
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