Borophenes are atom-thin boron layers that can be grown on coinage metal substrates and have become an important class of synthetic 2D nanomaterials. The interactions between boron and substrates are critical to understand the growth mechanisms of borophenes. Here, we report an investigation of copper-boron interactions in the Cu 2 B 8 − bimetallic cluster using photoelectron spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. Well-resolved photoelectron spectra are obtained at several photon energies and are combined with theoretical calculations to elucidate the structures and bonding of Cu 2 B 8 − . Global minimum searches reveal that Cu 2 B 8 − consists of a Cu 2 dimer atop a B 8 molecular wheel with a long Cu–Cu bond length close to that in Cu 2 + . Chemical bonding analyses indicate that there is clear charge transfer from Cu 2 to B 8 , and the Cu 2 B 8 − cluster can be viewed as a [Cu 2 + ]-borozene complex, [Cu 2 + ][B 8 2– ]. In the neutral cluster, no Cu–Cu bond exists and Cu 2 B 8 consists of two Cu + centers interacting with doubly aromatic B 8 2− borozene. The charge transfer interactions betweenmore »
AuB 8 − : an Au–borozene complex
Photoelectron spectroscopy and quantum chemistry studies are used to investigate the structure and bonding of AuB 8 − . Global minimum sturctural searches show that AuB 8 − possesses a chair-like structure, which can be viewed as Au + bonded to the edge of the doubly-aromatic B 8 2− borozene, Au + [η 2 -B 8 2− ]. Chemical bonding analyses reveal that the AuB 8 − is a novel borozene complex with unique Au–borozene bonding.
- Award ID(s):
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Chemical Communications
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
More Like this
Transition-metal-like bonding behaviors of a boron atom in a boron-cluster boronyl complex [(η 7 -B 7 )-B-BO] −Boron displays many unusual structural and bonding properties due to its electron deficiency. Here we show that a boron atom in a boron monoxide cluster (B 9 O − ) exhibits transition-metal-like properties. Temperature-dependent photoelectron spectroscopy provided evidence of the existence of two isomers for B 9 O − : the main isomer has an adiabatic detachment energy (ADE) of 4.19 eV and a higher energy isomer with an ADE of 3.59 eV. The global minimum of B 9 O − is found surprisingly to be an umbrella-like structure ( C 6v , 1 A 1 ) and its simulated spectrum agrees well with that of the main isomer observed. A low-lying isomer ( C s , 1 A′) consisting of a BO unit bonded to a disk-like B 8 cluster agrees well with the 3.59 eV ADE species. The unexpected umbrella-like global minimum of B 9 O − can be viewed as a central boron atom coordinated by a η 7 -B 7 ligand on one side and a BO ligand on the other side, [(η 7 -B 7 )-B-BO] − . The central B atom is found to share its valence electrons with the B 7 unit tomore »
Since the discovery of the B 40 borospherene, research interests have been directed to the structural evolution of even larger boron clusters. An interesting question concerns if the borospherene cages persist in larger boron clusters like the fullerenes. Here we report a photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and computational study on the structures and bonding of B 41 − and B 42 − , the largest boron clusters characterized experimentally thus far. The PE spectra of both clusters display broad and complicated features, suggesting the existence of multiple low-lying isomers. Global minimum searches for B 41 − reveal three low-lying isomers ( I–III ), which are all related to the planar B 40 − structure. Isomer II ( C s , 1 A′) possessing a double hexagonal vacancy is found to agree well with the experiment, while isomers I ( C s , 3 A′′) and III ( C s , 1 A′) both with a single hexagonal vacancy are also present as minor isomers in the experiment. The potential landscape of B 42 − is found to be much more complicated with numerous low-lying isomers ( VII–XII ). The quasi-planar structure VIII ( C 1 , 2 A) containing a doublemore »
The concept of metalla-aromaticity proposed by Thorn–Hoffmann ( Nouv. J. Chim . 1979, 3, 39) has been expanded to organometallic molecules of transition metals that have more than one independent electron-delocalized system. Lanthanides, with highly contracted 4f atomic orbitals, are rarely found in multiply aromatic systems. Here we report the discovery of a doubly aromatic triatomic lanthanide-boron molecule PrB 2 − based on a joint photoelectron spectroscopy and quantum chemical investigation. Global minimum structural searches reveal that PrB 2 − has a C 2v triangular structure with a paramagnetic triplet 3 B 2 electronic ground state, which can be viewed as featuring a trivalent Pr(III,f 2 ) and B 2 4− . Chemical bonding analyses show that this cyclo-PrB 2 − species is the smallest 4f-metalla-aromatic system exhibiting σ and π double aromaticity and multiple Pr–B bonding characters. It also sheds light on the formation of the rare B 2 4− tetraanion by the high-lying 5d orbitals of the 4f-elements, completing the isoelectronic B 2 4− , C 2 2− , N 2 , and O 2 2+ series.
Crystallographic characterization of rare-earth cyanotriphenylborate complexes and the cyanoborates [NCBPh 3 ] 1− , [NCBPh 2 Me] 1− , and [NCBPh 2 (μ-O)BPh 2 ] 1−The investigation of the coordination chemistry of rare-earth metal complexes with cyanide ligands led to the isolation and crystallographic characterization of the Ln III cyanotriphenylborate complexes dichlorido(cyanotriphenylborato-κ N )tetrakis(tetrahydrofuran-κ O )lanthanide(III), [ Ln Cl 2 (C 19 H 15 BN)(C 4 H 8 O) 4 ] [lanthanide ( Ln ) = dysprosium (Dy) and yttrium Y)] from reactions of LnCl 3 , KCN, and NaBPh 4 . Attempts to independently synthesize the tetraethylammonium salt of (NCBPh 3 ) − from BPh 3 and [NEt 4 ][CN] in THF yielded crystals of the phenyl-substituted cyclic borate, tetraethylazanium 2,2,4,6-tetraphenyl-1,3,5,2λ 4 ,4,6-trioxatriborinan-2-ide, C 8 H 20 N + ·C 24 H 20 B 3 O 3 − or [NEt 4 ][B 3 (μ-O) 3 (C 6 H 5 ) 4 ]. The mechanochemical reaction of BPh 3 and [NEt 4 ][CN] without solvent produced crystals of tetraethylazanium cyanodiphenyl-λ 4 -boranyl diphenylborinate, C 8 H 20 N + ·C 25 H 20 B 2 NO − or [NEt 4 ][NCBPh 2 (μ-O)BPh 2 ]. Reaction of BPh 3 and KCN in THF in the presence of 2.2.2-cryptand (crypt) led to a crystal of bis[(2.2.2-cryptand)potassium] 2,2,4,6-tetraphenyl-1,3,5,2λ 4 ,4,6-trioxatriborinan-2-ide cyanomethyldiphenylborate tetrahydrofuran disolvate, 2C 18 H 36more »