Recently, molecular fingerprints extracted from three-dimensional (3D) structures using advanced mathematics, such as algebraic topology, differential geometry, and graph theory have been paired with efficient machine learning, especially deep learning algorithms to outperform other methods in drug discovery applications and competitions. This raises the question of whether classical 2D fingerprints are still valuable in computer-aided drug discovery. This work considers 23 datasets associated with four typical problems, namely protein–ligand binding, toxicity, solubility and partition coefficient to assess the performance of eight 2D fingerprints. Advanced machine learning algorithms including random forest, gradient boosted decision tree, single-task deep neural network and multitask deep neural network are employed to construct efficient 2D-fingerprint based models. Additionally, appropriate consensus models are built to further enhance the performance of 2D-fingerprint-based methods. It is demonstrated that 2D-fingerprint-based models perform as well as the state-of-the-art 3D structure-based models for the predictions of toxicity, solubility, partition coefficient and protein–ligand binding affinity based on only ligand information. However, 3D structure-based models outperform 2D fingerprint-based methods in complex-based protein–ligand binding affinity predictions.
GeoMol: Torsional Geometric Generation of Molecular 3D Conformer Ensembles
Prediction of a molecule's 3D conformer ensemble from the molecular graph holds a key role in areas of cheminformatics and drug discovery. Existing generative models have several drawbacks including lack of modeling important molecular geometry elements (e.g. torsion angles), separate optimization stages prone to error accumulation, and the need for structure fine-tuning based on approximate classical force-fields or computationally expensive methods such as metadynamics with approximate quantum mechanics calculations at each geometry. We propose GeoMol--an end-to-end, non-autoregressive and SE(3)-invariant machine learning approach to generate distributions of low-energy molecular 3D conformers. Leveraging the power of message passing neural networks (MPNNs) to capture local and global graph information, we predict local atomic 3D structures and torsion angles, avoiding unnecessary over-parameterization of the geometric degrees of freedom (e.g. one angle per non-terminal bond). Such local predictions suffice both for the training loss computation, as well as for the full deterministic conformer assembly (at test time). We devise a non-adversarial optimal transport based loss function to promote diverse conformer generation. GeoMol predominantly outperforms popular open-source, commercial, or state-of-the-art machine learning (ML) models, while achieving significant speed-ups. We expect such differentiable 3D structure generators to significantly impact molecular modeling and related applications.
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- Advances in neural information processing systems
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- National Science Foundation
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