skip to main content

Title: A Tutorial on Matrix Perturbation Theory (using compact matrix notation)
Analytic perturbation theory for matrices and operators is an immensely useful mathematical technique. Most elementary introductions to this method have their background in the physics literature, and quantum mechanics in particular. In this note, we give an introduction to this method that is independent of any physics notions, and relies purely on concepts from linear algebra. An additional feature of this presentation is that matrix notation and methods are used throughout. In particular, we formulate the equations for each term of the analytic expansions of eigenvalues and eigenvectors as {\em matrix equations}, namely Sylvester equations in particular. Solvability conditions and explicit expressions for solutions of such matrix equations are given, and expressions for each term in the analytic expansions are given in terms of those solutions. This unified treatment simplifies somewhat the complex notation that is commonly seen in the literature, and in particular, provides relatively compact expressions for the non-Hermitian and degenerate cases, as well as for higher order terms.
Authors:
Award ID(s):
1932777 1763064
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10322686
Journal Name:
ArXivorg
ISSN:
2331-8422
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    In this paper, based on simplified Boltzmann equation, we explore the inverse-design of mesoscopic models for compressible flow using the Chapman-Enskog analysis. Starting from the single-relaxation-time Boltzmann equation with an additional source term, two model Boltzmann equations for two reduced distribution functions are obtained, each then also having an additional undetermined source term. Under this general framework and using Navier-Stokes-Fourier (NSF) equations as constraints, the structures of the distribution functions are obtained by the leading-order Chapman-Enskog analysis. Next, five basic constraints for the design of the two source terms are obtained in order to recover the NSF system in the continuum limit. These constraints allow for adjustable bulk-to-shear viscosity ratio, Prandtl number as well as a thermal energy source. The specific forms of the two source terms can be determined through proper physical considerations and numerical implementation requirements. By employing the truncated Hermite expansion, one design for the two source terms is proposed. Moreover, three well-known mesoscopic models in the literature are shown to be compatible with these five constraints. In addition, the consistent implementation of boundary conditions is also explored by using the Chapman-Enskog expansion at the NSF order. Finally, based on the higher-order Chapman-Enskog expansion of themore »distribution functions, we derive the complete analytical expressions for the viscous stress tensor and the heat flux. Some underlying physics can be further explored using the DNS simulation data based on the proposed model.

    « less
  2. Abstract We consider the existence and spectral stability of static multi-kink structures in the discrete sine-Gordon equation, as a representative example of the family of discrete Klein–Gordon models. The multi-kinks are constructed using Lin’s method from an alternating sequence of well-separated kink and antikink solutions. We then locate the point spectrum associated with these multi-kink solutions by reducing the spectral problem to a matrix equation. For an m -structure multi-kink, there will be m eigenvalues in the point spectrum near each eigenvalue of the primary kink, and, as long as the spectrum of the primary kink is imaginary, the spectrum of the multi-kink will be as well. We obtain analytic expressions for the eigenvalues of a multi-kink in terms of the eigenvalues and corresponding eigenfunctions of the primary kink, and these are in very good agreement with numerical results. We also perform numerical time-stepping experiments on perturbations of multi-kinks, and the outcomes of these simulations are interpreted using the spectral results.
  3. Abstract We consider a singular perturbation for a family of analytic symplectic maps of the annulus possessing a KAM torus. The perturbation introduces dissipation and contains an adjustable parameter. By choosing the adjustable parameter, one can ensure that the torus persists under perturbation. Such models are common in celestial mechanics. In field theory, the adjustable parameter is called the counterterm and in celestial mechanics, the drift . It is known that there are formal expansions in powers of the perturbation both for the quasi-periodic solution and the counterterm. We prove that the asymptotic expansions for the quasiperiodic solutions and the counterterm satisfy Gevrey estimates. That is, the n th term of the expansion is bounded by a power of n !. The Gevrey class (the power of n !) depends only on the Diophantine condition of the frequency and the order of the friction coefficient in powers of the perturbative parameter. The method of proof we introduce may be of interest beyond the problem considered here. We consider a modified Newton method in a space of power expansions. As is custumary in KAM theory, each step of the method is estimated in a smaller domain. In contrast with the KAMmore »results, the domains where we control the Newton method shrink very fast and the Newton method does not prove that the solutions are analytic. On the other hand, by examining carefully the process, we can obtain estimates on the coefficients of the expansions and conclude the series are Gevrey.« less
  4. The thermal radiative transfer (TRT) equations form an integro-differential system that describes the propagation and collisional interactions of photons. Computing accurate and efficient numerical solutions TRT are challenging for several reasons, the first of which is that TRT is defined on a high-dimensional phase space that includes the independent variables of time, space, and velocity. In order to reduce the dimensionality of the phase space, classical approaches such as the P$_N$ (spherical harmonics) or the S$_N$ (discrete ordinates) ansatz are often used in the literature. In this work, we introduce a novel approach: the hybrid discrete (H$^T_N$) approximation to the radiative thermal transfer equations. This approach acquires desirable properties of both P$_N$ and S$_N$, and indeed reduces to each of these approximations in various limits: H$^1_N$ $\equiv$ P$_N$ and H$^T_0$ $\equiv$ S$_T$. We prove that H$^T_N$ results in a system of hyperbolic partial differential equations for all $T\ge 1$ and $N\ge 0$. Another challenge in solving the TRT system is the inherent stiffness due to the large timescale separation between propagation and collisions, especially in the diffusive (i.e., highly collisional) regime. This stiffness challenge can be partially overcome via implicit time integration, although fully implicit methods may become computationally expensivemore »due to the strong nonlinearity and system size. On the other hand, explicit time-stepping schemes that are not also asymptotic-preserving in the highly collisional limit require resolving the mean-free path between collisions, making such schemes prohibitively expensive. In this work we develop a numerical method that is based on a nodal discontinuous Galerkin discretization in space, coupled with a semi-implicit discretization in time. In particular, we make use of a second order explicit Runge-Kutta scheme for the streaming term and an implicit Euler scheme for the material coupling term. Furthermore, in order to solve the material energy equation implicitly after each predictor and corrector step, we linearize the temperature term using a Taylor expansion; this avoids the need for an iterative procedure, and therefore improves efficiency. In order to reduce unphysical oscillation, we apply a slope limiter after each time step. Finally, we conduct several numerical experiments to verify the accuracy, efficiency, and robustness of the H$^T_N$ ansatz and the numerical discretizations.« less
  5. Abstract In this article, the recently discovered phenomenon of delayed Hopf bifurcations (DHB) in reaction–diffusion partial differential equations (PDEs) is analysed in the cubic Complex Ginzburg–Landau equation, as an equation in its own right, with a slowly varying parameter. We begin by using the classical asymptotic methods of stationary phase and steepest descents on the linearized PDE to show that solutions, which have approached the attracting quasi-steady state (QSS) before the Hopf bifurcation remain near that state for long times after the instantaneous Hopf bifurcation and the QSS has become repelling. In the complex time plane, the phase function of the linearized PDE has a saddle point, and the Stokes and anti-Stokes lines are central to the asymptotics. The non-linear terms are treated by applying an iterative method to the mild form of the PDE given by perturbations about the linear particular solution. This tracks the closeness of solutions near the attracting and repelling QSS in the full, non-linear PDE. Next, we show that beyond a key Stokes line through the saddle there is a curve in the space-time plane along which the particular solution of the linear PDE ceases to be exponentially small, causing the solution of the non-linearmore »PDE to diverge from the repelling QSS and exhibit large-amplitude oscillations. This curve is called the space–time buffer curve. The homogeneous solution also stops being exponentially small in a spatially dependent manner, as determined also by the initial data and time. Hence, a competition arises between these two solutions, as to which one ceases to be exponentially small first, and this competition governs spatial dependence of the DHB. We find four different cases of DHB, depending on the outcomes of the competition, and we quantify to leading order how these depend on the main system parameters, including the Hopf frequency, initial time, initial data, source terms, and diffusivity. Examples are presented for each case, with source terms that are a uni-modal function, a smooth step function, a spatially periodic function and an algebraically growing function. Also, rich spatio-temporal dynamics are observed in the post-DHB oscillations. Finally, it is shown that large-amplitude source terms can be designed so that solutions spend substantially longer times near the repelling QSS, and hence, region-specific control over the delayed onset of oscillations can be achieved.« less