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Title: Modulation of acoustofluidic parameters to assess effect on molecular loading in human T cells.
T-cell therapies are rapidly emerging for treatment of cancer and other diseases but are limited by inefficient non-viral delivery methods. Acoustofluidic devices are in development to enhance non-viral delivery to cells. The effect of acoustofluidic parameters, such as channel geometry, on molecular loading in human T cells was assessed using 3D-printed acoustofluidic devices. Devices with rectilinear channels (1- and 2-mm diameters) were compared directly with concentric spiral channel geometries. Intracellular delivery of a fluorescent dye (calcein, 100 lg/ml) was evaluated in Jurkat T cells using flow cytometry after ultrasound treatment with cationic microbubbles (2.5% v/v). B-mode ultrasound pulses (2.5 MHz, 3.8 MPa output pressure) were generated by a P4-1 transducer on a Verasonics Vantage ultrasound system. Cell viability was assessed using propidum iodine staining (10 lg/ml). Intracellular molecular delivery was significantly enhanced with acoustofluidic treatment in each channel geometry, but treatment with the 1-mm concentric spiral geometry further enhanced delivery after acoustofluidic treatment compared to both 1- and 2-mm rectilinear channels (ANOVA p < 0.001, n ¼ 6/group). These results indicate that 3Dprinted acoustofluidic devices enhance molecular delivery to T cells, and channel geometry modulates intracellular loading efficiency. This approach may offer advantages to improve manufacturing of T cell therapies.
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The journal of the Acoustical Society of America
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National Science Foundation
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