skip to main content

Title: Continuous production of ultrathin organic–inorganic Ruddlesden–Popper perovskite nanoplatelets via a flow reactor
Because of their enhanced quantum confinement, colloidal two-dimensional Ruddlesden–Popper (RP) perovskite nanosheets with a general formula L 2 [ABX 3 ] n −1 BX 4 stand as a promising narrow-wavelength blue-emitting nanomaterial. Despite ample studies on batch synthesis, for RP perovskites to be broadly applied, continuous synthetic routes are needed. Herein, we design and optimize a flow reactor to continuously produce high-quality n = 1 RP perovskite nanoplatelets. The effects of antisolvent composition, reactor tube length, precursor solution injection rate, and antisolvent injection rate on the morphology and optical properties of the nanoplatelets are systematically examined. Our investigation suggests that flow reactors can be employed to synthesize high-quality L 2 PbX 4 perovskite nanoplatelets ( i.e. , n = 1) at rates greater than 8 times that of batch synthesis. Mass-produced perovskite nanoplatelets promise a variety of potential applications in optoelectronics, including light emitting diodes, photodetectors, and solar cells.
Authors:
; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
1914713
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10323286
Journal Name:
Nanoscale
Volume:
13
Issue:
30
ISSN:
2040-3364
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Metal-mediated cross-coupling reactions offer organic chemists a wide array of stereo- and chemically-selective reactions with broad applications in fine chemical and pharmaceutical synthesis.1 Current batch-based synthesis methods are beginning to be replaced with flow chemistry strategies to take advantage of the improved consistency and process control methods offered by continuous flow systems.2,3 Most cross-coupling chemistries still encounter several issues in flow using homogeneous catalysis, including expensive catalyst recovery and air sensitivity due to the chemical nature of the catalyst ligands.1 To mitigate some of these issues, a ligand-free heterogeneous catalysis reaction was developed using palladium (Pd) loaded into a polymeric network of a silicone elastomer, poly(hydromethylsiloxane) (PHMS), that is not air sensitive and can be used with mild reaction solvents (ethanol and water).4 In this work we present a novel method of producing soft catalytic microparticles using a multiphase flow-focusing microreactor and demonstrate their application for continuous Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reactions. The catalytic microparticles are produced in a coaxial glass capillary-based 3D flow-focusing microreactor. The microreactor consists of two precursors, a cross-linking catalyst in toluene and a mixture of the PHMS polymer and a divinyl cross-linker. The dispersed phase containing the polymer, cross-linker, and cross-linking catalyst is continuously mixed and thenmore »formed into microdroplets by the continuous phase of water and surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate) introduced in a counter-flow configuration. Elastomeric microdroplets with a diameter ranging between 50 to 300 micron are produced at 25 to 250 Hz with a size polydispersity less than 3% in single stream production. The physicochemical properties of the elastomeric microparticles such as particle swelling/softness can be tuned using the ratio of cross-linker to polymer as well as the ratio of polymer mixture to solvent during the particle formation. Swelling in toluene can be tuned up to 400% of the initial particle volume by reducing the concentration of cross-linker in the mixture and increasing the ratio of polymer to solvent during production.5 After the particles are produced and collected, they are transferred into toluene containing palladium acetate, allowing the particles to incorporate the palladium into the polymer network and then reduce the palladium to Pd0 with the Si-H functionality present on the PHMS backbones. After the reduction, the Pd-loaded particles can be washed and dried for storage or switched into an ethanol/water solution for loading into a micro-packed bed reactor (µ-PBR) for continuous organic synthesis. The in-situ reduction of Pd within the PHMS microparticles was confirmed using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and focused ion beam-SEM, and TEM techniques. In the next step, we used the developed µ-PBR to conduct continuous organic synthesis of 4-phenyltoluene by Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of 4-iodotoluene and phenylboronic acid using potassium carbonate as the base. Catalyst leaching was determined to only occur at sub ppm concentrations even at high solvent flow rates after 24 h of continuous run using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The developed µ-PBR using the elastomeric microparticles is an important initial step towards the development of highly-efficient and green continuous manufacturing technologies in the pharma industry. In addition, the developed elastomeric microparticle synthesis technique can be utilized for the development of a library of other chemically cross-linkable polymer/cross-linker pairs for applications in organic synthesis, targeted drug delivery, cell encapsulation, or biomedical imaging. References 1. Ruiz-Castillo P, Buchwald SL. Applications of Palladium-Catalyzed C-N Cross-Coupling Reactions. Chem Rev. 2016;116(19):12564-12649. 2. Adamo A, Beingessner RL, Behnam M, et al. On-demand continuous-flow production of pharmaceuticals in a compact, reconfigurable system. Science. 2016;352(6281):61 LP-67. 3. Jensen KF. Flow Chemistry — Microreaction Technology Comes of Age. 2017;63(3). 4. Stibingerova I, Voltrova S, Kocova S, Lindale M, Srogl J. Modular Approach to Heterogenous Catalysis. Manipulation of Cross-Coupling Catalyst Activity. Org Lett. 2016;18(2):312-315. 5. Bennett JA, Kristof AJ, Vasudevan V, Genzer J, Srogl J, Abolhasani M. Microfluidic synthesis of elastomeric microparticles: A case study in catalysis of palladium-mediated cross-coupling. AIChE J. 2018;0(0):1-10.« less
  2. Resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) have come full-circle in the past 10 years after their demonstration in the early 1990s as the fastest room-temperature semiconductor oscillator, displaying experimental results up to 712 GHz and fmax values exceeding 1.0 THz [1]. Now the RTD is once again the preeminent electronic oscillator above 1.0 THz and is being implemented as a coherent source [2] and a self-oscillating mixer [3], amongst other applications. This paper concerns RTD electroluminescence – an effect that has been studied very little in the past 30+ years of RTD development, and not at room temperature. We present experiments and modeling of an n-type In0.53Ga0.47As/AlAs double-barrier RTD operating as a cross-gap light emitter at ~300K. The MBE-growth stack is shown in Fig. 1(a). A 15-μm-diam-mesa device was defined by standard planar processing including a top annular ohmic contact with a 5-μm-diam pinhole in the center to couple out enough of the internal emission for accurate free-space power measurements [4]. The emission spectra have the behavior displayed in Fig. 1(b), parameterized by bias voltage (VB). The long wavelength emission edge is at  = 1684 nm - close to the In0.53Ga0.47As bandgap energy of Ug ≈ 0.75 eV at 300 K.more »The spectral peaks for VB = 2.8 and 3.0 V both occur around  = 1550 nm (h = 0.75 eV), so blue-shifted relative to the peak of the “ideal”, bulk InGaAs emission spectrum shown in Fig. 1(b) [5]. These results are consistent with the model displayed in Fig. 1(c), whereby the broad emission peak is attributed to the radiative recombination between electrons accumulated on the emitter side, and holes generated on the emitter side by interband tunneling with current density Jinter. The blue-shifted main peak is attributed to the quantum-size effect on the emitter side, which creates a radiative recombination rate RN,2 comparable to the band-edge cross-gap rate RN,1. Further support for this model is provided by the shorter wavelength and weaker emission peak shown in Fig. 1(b) around = 1148 nm. Our quantum mechanical calculations attribute this to radiative recombination RR,3 in the RTD quantum well between the electron ground-state level E1,e, and the hole level E1,h. To further test the model and estimate quantum efficiencies, we conducted optical power measurements using a large-area Ge photodiode located ≈3 mm away from the RTD pinhole, and having spectral response between 800 and 1800 nm with a peak responsivity of ≈0.85 A/W at  =1550 nm. Simultaneous I-V and L-V plots were obtained and are plotted in Fig. 2(a) with positive bias on the top contact (emitter on the bottom). The I-V curve displays a pronounced NDR region having a current peak-to-valley current ratio of 10.7 (typical for In0.53Ga0.47As RTDs). The external quantum efficiency (EQE) was calculated from EQE = e∙IP/(∙IE∙h) where IP is the photodiode dc current and IE the RTD current. The plot of EQE is shown in Fig. 2(b) where we see a very rapid rise with VB, but a maximum value (at VB= 3.0 V) of only ≈2×10-5. To extract the internal quantum efficiency (IQE), we use the expression EQE= c ∙i ∙r ≡ c∙IQE where ci, and r are the optical-coupling, electrical-injection, and radiative recombination efficiencies, respectively [6]. Our separate optical calculations yield c≈3.4×10-4 (limited primarily by the small pinhole) from which we obtain the curve of IQE plotted in Fig. 2(b) (right-hand scale). The maximum value of IQE (again at VB = 3.0 V) is 6.0%. From the implicit definition of IQE in terms of i and r given above, and the fact that the recombination efficiency in In0.53Ga0.47As is likely limited by Auger scattering, this result for IQE suggests that i might be significantly high. To estimate i, we have used the experimental total current of Fig. 2(a), the Kane two-band model of interband tunneling [7] computed in conjunction with a solution to Poisson’s equation across the entire structure, and a rate-equation model of Auger recombination on the emitter side [6] assuming a free-electron density of 2×1018 cm3. We focus on the high-bias regime above VB = 2.5 V of Fig. 2(a) where most of the interband tunneling should occur in the depletion region on the collector side [Jinter,2 in Fig. 1(c)]. And because of the high-quality of the InGaAs/AlAs heterostructure (very few traps or deep levels), most of the holes should reach the emitter side by some combination of drift, diffusion, and tunneling through the valence-band double barriers (Type-I offset) between InGaAs and AlAs. The computed interband current density Jinter is shown in Fig. 3(a) along with the total current density Jtot. At the maximum Jinter (at VB=3.0 V) of 7.4×102 A/cm2, we get i = Jinter/Jtot = 0.18, which is surprisingly high considering there is no p-type doping in the device. When combined with the Auger-limited r of 0.41 and c ≈ 3.4×10-4, we find a model value of IQE = 7.4% in good agreement with experiment. This leads to the model values for EQE plotted in Fig. 2(b) - also in good agreement with experiment. Finally, we address the high Jinter and consider a possible universal nature of the light-emission mechanism. Fig. 3(b) shows the tunneling probability T according to the Kane two-band model in the three materials, In0.53Ga0.47As, GaAs, and GaN, following our observation of a similar electroluminescence mechanism in GaN/AlN RTDs (due to strong polarization field of wurtzite structures) [8]. The expression is Tinter = (2/9)∙exp[(-2 ∙Ug 2 ∙me)/(2h∙P∙E)], where Ug is the bandgap energy, P is the valence-to-conduction-band momentum matrix element, and E is the electric field. Values for the highest calculated internal E fields for the InGaAs and GaN are also shown, indicating that Tinter in those structures approaches values of ~10-5. As shown, a GaAs RTD would require an internal field of ~6×105 V/cm, which is rarely realized in standard GaAs RTDs, perhaps explaining why there have been few if any reports of room-temperature electroluminescence in the GaAs devices. [1] E.R. Brown,et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 58, 2291, 1991. [5] S. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd Ed. 12.2.1 (Wiley, 1981). [2] M. Feiginov et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., 99, 233506, 2011. [6] L. Coldren, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, (Wiley, 1995). [3] Y. Nishida et al., Nature Sci. Reports, 9, 18125, 2019. [7] E.O. Kane, J. of Appl. Phy 32, 83 (1961). [4] P. Fakhimi, et al., 2019 DRC Conference Digest. [8] T. Growden, et al., Nature Light: Science & Applications 7, 17150 (2018). [5] S. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd Ed. 12.2.1 (Wiley, 1981). [6] L. Coldren, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, (Wiley, 1995). [7] E.O. Kane, J. of Appl. Phy 32, 83 (1961). [8] T. Growden, et al., Nature Light: Science & Applications 7, 17150 (2018).« less
  3. The effects of nanoscale silver (nAg) particles on subsurface microbial communities can be influenced by the presence of biosurfactants, which have been shown to alter nanoparticle surface properties. Batch and column studies were conducted to investigate the influence of rhamnolipid biosurfactant (1–50 mg L −1 ) on the stability and mobility of silver nanoparticles (16 ± 4 nm) in batch reactors and water-saturated columns with three solution chemistries: pH = 4 and dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) = 8.8 mg L −1 , pH = 7 and DO = 8.8 mg L −1 , pH = 7 and DO = 2.0 mg L −1 . In batch studies, the presence of rhamnolipid (2–50 mg L −1 ) reduced nAg dissolution by 83.3–99.1% under all pH and DO conditions. Improved nAg stability was observed when rhamnolipid was present in batch reactors at pH = 7 ± 0.2, where the hydrodynamic diameter remained constant (∼50 nm) relative to rhamnolipid-free controls (increased to >230 nm) in 48 hours. Column experiments conducted at pH 4.0 ± 0.2 demonstrated that co-injection of nAg with rhamnolipid (2, 5 and 50 mg L −1 ) decreased Ag + breakthrough from ∼22% of total applied mass in rhamnolipid-free columnsmore »to less than 8.1% in the presence of rhamnolipid and altered the shape of the nAg retention profile from a hyper-exponential to a uniform distribution. Column experiments performed at pH 7.0 ± 0.2 and DO levels of either ∼2.0 or ∼8.8 mg L −1 showed that co-injection of 5 mg L −1 and 50 mg L −1 rhamnolipid increased nAg mass breakthrough by 25–40% and ∼80%, respectively, enhancements in nAg stability and mobility were attributed to rhamnolipid adsorption on nAg surfaces, which effectively slowed the oxidation and thus release of Ag + , and adsorption of rhamnolipid on the porous medium, which competed for nAg attachment sites. These results indicate that the presence of rhamnolipid significantly influenced nAg dissolution and mobility under dynamic flow conditions. A mathematical model based on modified filtration theory (MFT) accurately reproduced nAg transport and retention behavior when aggregation and reaction processes were minimal and when rhamnolipid was present, providing a tool to predict the effects of biosurfactants on nAg transport in porous media.« less
  4. Denitrification in woodchip bioreactors (WBRs) treating agricultural drainage and runoff is frequently carbon-limited due to the recalcitrance of carbon (C) in lignocellulosic woodchip biomass. Recent research has shown that redox fluctuations, achieved through periodic draining and re-flooding of WBRs, can increase nitrate removal rates by enhancing the release of labile C during oxic periods. While dying–rewetting (DRW) cycles appear to hold great promise for improving the performance of denitrifying WBRs, redox fluctuations in nitrogen-rich environments are commonly associated with enhanced emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N 2 O) due to inhibition of N 2 O reduction in microaerophilic conditions. Here, we evaluate the effects of oxic–anoxic cycling associated with DRW on the quantity and quality of C mobilized from woodchips, nitrate removal rates, and N 2 O accumulation in a complementary set of flow-through and batch laboratory bioreactors at 20 °C. Redox fluctuations significantly increased nitrate removal rates from 4.8–7.2 g N m −3 d −1 in a continuously saturated (CS) reactor to 9.8–11.2 g N m −3 d −1 24 h after a reactor is drained and re-saturated. Results support the theory that DRW conditions lead to faster NO 3 − removal rates by increasing mobilization ofmore »labile organic C from woodchips, with lower aromaticity in the dissolved C pool of oxic–anoxic reactors highlighting the importance of lignin breakdown to overall carbon release. There was no evidence for greater N 2 O accumulation, measured as N 2 O product yields, in the DRW reactors compared to continuously saturated reactors. We propose that greater organic C availability for N 2 O reducers following oxic periods outweighs the effect of microaerophilic inhibition of N 2 O reduction in controlling N 2 O dynamics. Implications of these findings for optimizing DRW cycling to enhance nitrate removal rates in denitrifying WBRs are discussed.« less
  5. This study presents a comprehensive investigation on the aerosol synthesis of a semiconducting double perovskite oxide with a nominal composition of KBaTeBiO 6 , which is considered as a potential candidate for CO 2 photoreduction. We demonstrate the rapid synthesis of the multispecies compounds KBaTeBiO 6 with extreme high purity and controllable size through a single-step furnace aerosol reactor (FuAR) process. The formation mechanism of the perovskite in the aerosol route is investigated using thermogravimetric analysis to identify the optimal reference temperature, residence time and other operational parameters in the FuAR synthesis process to obtain the highly pure KBaTeBiO 6 nanoparticles. It is observed that particle formation in the FuAR is based on a mixture of gas-to-particle and liquid-to-particle mechanisms. The phase purity of the perovskite nanoparticles depends on the ratio of the residence time and the reaction time. The particle size is strongly affected by the precursor concentration, residence time and the furnace temperature. Finally, the photocatalytic performance of the synthesized KBaTeBiO 6 nanoparticles is investigated for CO 2 photoreduction under UV-light. The best performing sample exhibits an average CO production rate of 180 μmol g −1 h −1 in the first half hour with a quantum efficiency ofmore »1.19%, demonstrating KBaTeBiO 6 as a promising photocatalyst for CO 2 photoreduction.« less