- Publication Date:
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- Journal Name:
- Journal of Pest Science
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Recent Detection of Multiple Populations of the Tropical Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) Exhibiting kdr-Associated Mutations in HawaiiAbstract In recent years, bed bugs have experienced a remarkable resurgence on a near global scale. While reports have primarily focused on the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius (L.), which has resurged largely in temperate regions, in tropical regions the tropical bed bug, Cimex hemipterus (F.) (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), has reemerged as well. Recent reports of C. hemipterus introductions to subtropical and temperate regions, outside of the species natural distribution, suggest the potential for establishment and further spread. Establishment may be aided by insecticide resistance mechanisms, such as the presence of knockdown resistance (kdr)-associated mutations, which potentially confer resistance to pyrethroid, pyrethrin, and organochloride insecticides. Here, we present the first report of the detection and likely establishment of C. hemipterus in Honolulu, Hawaii, from samples collected in 2009 and 2019. Furthermore, through partial sequencing of the voltage-gated sodium channel, we report the presence of kdr-associated mutations in all samples. These findings have implications for the implementation of control strategies aimed at eradicating infestations.
Knockdown Resistance-Associated Mutations Dominate Populations of the Common Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) Across the South Central United StatesAbstract Despite awareness of the mutations conferring insecticide resistance in the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), within the United States few studies address the distribution and frequency of these. Within the United States, studies have focused on collections made along the East Coast and Midwest, documenting the occurrence of two mutations (V419L and L925I) within the voltage-gated sodium channel α-subunit gene shown to be associated with knockdown resistance (kdr) to pyrethroids. Here, the distribution and frequency of the V419L and L925I site variants is reported from infestations sampled within Oklahoma and its immediately adjacent states. Additionally, the presence of a mutation previously undocumented in the United States (I935F) is noted. While novel in the United States, this mutation has previously been reported in Australian and Old World populations. No infestations were found to harbor wild-type individuals, and hence susceptible, at each of the three sites. Instead, ~21% were found to possess the resistant mutation at the L925I site (haplotype B), ~77% had mutations at both the V419L and L925I sites (haplotype C), and 2% possessed the mutation at the L936F site (haplotype Ab). The high frequency of haplotype C corresponds to previous studies in the United States, andmore »
Behavioral interactions of bed bugs with long-lasting pyrethroid-treated bed nets: challenges for vector control
Widespread vector control has been essential in reducing the global incidence and prevalence of malaria, despite now stalled progress. Long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) have historically been, and remain, one of the most commonly used vector control tools in the campaign against malaria. LLINs are effective only with proper use, adherence, retention and community adoption, which historically have relied on the successful control of secondary pests, including bed bugs. The emergence of pyrethroid-resistant bed bugs in malaria-endemic communities and failure to control infestations have been suggested to interfere with the effective use of LLINs. Therefore, the behavioral interactions of bed bugs with commonly used bed nets should be better understood.
To investigate the interactions between bed bugs (
Cimex lectulariusL.) and LLINs, insecticide-susceptible and pyrethroid-resistant bed bugs were challenged to pass through two commonly used LLINs in two behavioral assays, namely host (blood meal)-seeking and aggregation-seeking assays. The proportions blood-fed and aggregated bed bugs, aggregation time and mortality were quantified and analyzed in different bed bug life stages. Results
Overall, both the insecticide-susceptible bed bugs and highly resistant bed bugs showed a varying ability to pass through LLINs based on treatment status and net design. Deltamethrin-treated nets significantly impeded both feeding andmore »
Commonly used new LLINs failed to prevent the passage of susceptible and pyrethroid-resistant bed bugs in host- and aggregation-seeking bioassays. The overall low and variable mortality observed in susceptible bed bugs during both assays highlighted the potential of LLINs to impose strong selection pressure for the evolution of pyrethroid resistance. Already, the failure to control bed bug infestations has been implicated as a contributing factor to the abandonment or misuse of LLINs. For the first time to our knowledge, we have shown the potential of LLINs in selecting for resistant secondary pest populations and so their potential role in stalling malaria control programs should be further investigated.
The emergence of pyrethroid-resistant bed bugs in malaria-endemic communities may interfere with the effective use of pyrethroid-impregnated bed nets. We assessed the interactions of two bed bug strains with commonly used bed nets using two behavioral assays, namely host (blood meal)-seeking by unfed bed bugs and aggregation-seeking by freshly fed bed bugs. These assays assessed the passage of bed bugs through various bed nets in response to host cues and aggregation stimuli, respectively. Conditioned paper is a section of file folder paper that has been exposed to bed bugs and has been impregnated with feces and aggregation pheromone; it is attractive to aggregation-seeking fed bed bugs. An unconditioned ramp is a similar section of file folder paper that allows bed bugs to traverse the bed net and gain access to a blood-meal source.
In recent decades, the world has witnessed a remarkable resurgence of bedbugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). Although populations of the common bedbug,
Cimex lectulariusL., expanded in temperate regions of its original distribution, the tropical bedbug, C. hemipterus(F.), increased its abundance in warmer regions, where it also had been historically distributed. However, C. hemipterushas recently been observed to be expanding to other areas, e.g. North Australia, Middle East, the United States and Russia. In other parts of Europe, few sporadic and ephemeral introductions of C. hemipteruswere recorded until recently. We conducted an extensive sampling of European bedbug populations starting in 2002 and found that C. hemipterushas recently become locally established. Among 566 examined infestations, nearly all of which involved C. lectularius, C. hemipterusoccurred in six infestations collected since 2019. In at least three cases, the social background of inhabitants of the infested properties indicated that tropical bedbugs likely spread within local communities. Using cytochrome oxidase subunit I, we linked five of the infestations to the most common haplotype found globally, and one to an African haplotype. In all infestations, we observed two kdr‐associated mutations in the sodium channel gene, which are also commonly found across the world.
Hribar, Lawrence (Ed.)Abstract Cimex lectularius L. populations have been documented worldwide to be resistant to pyrethroids and neonicotinoids, insecticides that have been widely used to control bed bugs. There is an urgent need to discover new active ingredients with different modes of action to control bed bug populations. Fipronil, a phenylpyrazole that targets the GABA receptor, has been shown to be highly effective on bed bugs. However, because fipronil shares the same target site with dieldrin, we investigated the potential of fipronil resistance in bed bugs. Resistance ratios in eight North American populations and one European population ranged from 1.4- to >985-fold, with highly resistant populations on both continents. We evaluated metabolic resistance mechanisms mediated by cytochrome P450s, esterases, carboxylesterases, and glutathione S-transferases using synergists and a combination of synergists. All four detoxification enzyme classes play significant but variable roles in bed bug resistance to fipronil. Suppression of P450s and esterases with synergists eliminated resistance to fipronil in highly resistant bed bugs. Target-site insensitivity was evaluated by sequencing a fragment of the Rdl gene to detect the A302S mutation, known to confer resistance to dieldrin and fipronil in other species. All nine populations were homozygous for the wild-type genotype (susceptible phenotype). Highlymore »