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Title: GROWTH POLE RING protein forms a 200-nm-diameter ring structure essential for polar growth and rod shape in Agrobacterium tumefaciens
Polar growth in Agrobacterium pirates and repurposes well-known bacterial cell cycle proteins, such as FtsZ, FtsA, PopZ, and PodJ. Here we identify a heretofore unknown protein that we name GROWTH POLE RING (GPR) due to its striking localization as a hexameric ring at the growth pole during polar growth. GPR also localizes at the midcell late in the cell cycle just before division, where it is then poised to be precisely localized at new growth poles in sibling cells. GPR is 2,115 aa long, with two N-terminal transmembrane domains placing the bulk of the protein in the cytoplasm, N- and C-terminal proline-rich disordered regions, and a large 1,700-aa central region of continuous α-helical domains. This latter region contains 12 predicted adjacent or overlapping apolipoprotein domains that may function to sequester lipids during polar growth. Stable genetic deletion or riboswitch-controlled depletion results in spherical cells that grow poorly; thus, GPR is essential for wild-type growth and morphology. As GPR has no predicted enzymatic domains and it forms a distinct 200-nm-diameter ring, we propose that GPR is a structural component of an organizing center for peptidoglycan and membrane syntheses critical for cell envelope formation during polar growth. GPR homologs are found in more » numerous Rhizobiales; thus, our results and proposed model are fundamental to understanding polar growth strategy in a variety of bacterial species. « less
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Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
10962 to 10967
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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  1. Sloan Siegrist, M. (Ed.)
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  2. Bassler, Bonnie (Ed.)
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  5. Summary

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