skip to main content

This content will become publicly available on April 13, 2023

Title: Chemoproteomic Profiling of Protein Substrates of a Major Lysine Acetyltransferase in the Native Cellular Context
The family of lysine acetyltransferases (KATs) regulates epigenetics and signaling pathways in eukaryotic cells. So far, knowledge of different KAT members contributing to the cellular acetylome is limited, which limits our understanding of biological functions of KATs in physiology and disease. Here, we found that a clickable acyl-CoA reporter, 3-azidopropanoyl CoA (3AZ-CoA), presented remarkable cell permeability and effectively acylated proteins in cells. We rationally engineered the major KAT member, histone acetyltransferase 1 (HAT1), to generate its mutant forms that displayed excellent bio-orthogonal activity for 3AZ-CoA in substrate labeling. We were able to apply the bio-orthogonal enzyme–cofactor pair combined with SILAC proteomics to achieve HAT1 substrate targeting, enrichment, and proteomic profiling in living cells. A total of 123 protein substrates of HAT1 were disclosed, underlining the multifactorial functions of this important enzyme than hitherto known. This study demonstrates the first example of utilizing bio-orthogonal reporters as a chemoproteomic strategy for substrate mapping of individual KAT isoforms in the native biological contexts.
; ; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
ACS Chemical Biology
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Protein acylation, exemplified by lysine acetylation, is a type of indispensable and widespread protein posttranslational modification in eukaryotes. Functional annotation of various lysine acetyltransferases (KATs) is critical to understanding their regulatory roles in abundant biological processes. Traditional radiometric and immunosorbent assays have found broad use in KAT study but have intrinsic limitations. Designing acyl–coenzyme A (CoA) reporter molecules bearing chemoselective chemical warhead groups as surrogates of the native cofactor acetyl-CoA for bioorthogonal labeling of KAT substrates has come into a technical innovation in recent years. This chemical biology platform equips molecular biologists with empowering tools in acyltransferase activity detection and substrate profiling. In the bioorthogonal labeling, protein substrates are first enzymatically modified with a functionalized acyl group. Subsequently, the chemical warhead on the acyl chain conjugates with either an imaging chromophore or an affinity handle or any other appropriate probes through an orthogonal chemical ligation. This bioorganic strategy reformats the chemically inert acetylation and acylation marks into a chemically maneuverable functionality and generates measurable signals without recourse to radioisotopes or antibodies. It offers ample opportunities for facile sensitive detection of KAT activity with temporal and spatial resolutions as well as allows for chemoproteomic profiling of protein acetylation pertaining to specificmore »KATs of interest on the global scale. We reviewed here the past and current advances in bioorthogonal protein acylations and highlighted their wide-spectrum applications. We also discussed the design of other related acyl-CoA and CoA-based chemical probes and their deployment in illuminating protein acetylation and acylation biology.

    « less
  2. Lovley, Derek R. (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT Dichloroacetate (DCA) commonly occurs in the environment due to natural production and anthropogenic releases, but its fate under anoxic conditions is uncertain. Mixed culture RM comprising “ Candidatus Dichloromethanomonas elyunquensis” strain RM utilizes DCA as an energy source, and the transient formation of formate, H 2 , and carbon monoxide (CO) was observed during growth. Only about half of the DCA was recovered as acetate, suggesting a fermentative catabolic route rather than a reductive dechlorination pathway. Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons and 16S rRNA gene-targeted quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) implicated “ Candidatus Dichloromethanomonas elyunquensis” strain RM in DCA degradation. An ( S )-2-haloacid dehalogenase (HAD) encoded on the genome of strain RM was heterologously expressed, and the purified HAD demonstrated the cofactor-independent stoichiometric conversion of DCA to glyoxylate at a rate of 90 ± 4.6 nkat mg −1 protein. Differential protein expression analysis identified enzymes catalyzing the conversion of DCA to acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) via glyoxylate as well as enzymes of the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. Glyoxylate carboligase, which catalyzes the condensation of two molecules of glyoxylate to form tartronate semialdehyde, was highly abundant in DCA-grown cells. The physiological, biochemical, and proteogenomic data demonstrate the involvement of an HAD and themore »Wood-Ljungdahl pathway in the anaerobic fermentation of DCA, which has implications for DCA turnover in natural and engineered environments, as well as the metabolism of the cancer drug DCA by gut microbiota. IMPORTANCE Dichloroacetate (DCA) is ubiquitous in the environment due to natural formation via biological and abiotic chlorination processes and the turnover of chlorinated organic materials (e.g., humic substances). Additional sources include DCA usage as a chemical feedstock and cancer drug and its unintentional formation during drinking water disinfection by chlorination. Despite the ubiquitous presence of DCA, its fate under anoxic conditions has remained obscure. We discovered an anaerobic bacterium capable of metabolizing DCA, identified the enzyme responsible for DCA dehalogenation, and elucidated a novel DCA fermentation pathway. The findings have implications for the turnover of DCA and the carbon and electron flow in electron acceptor-depleted environments and the human gastrointestinal tract.« less
  3. Abstract Histone lysine crotonylation is a posttranslational modification with demonstrated functions in transcriptional regulation. Here we report the discovery of a new type of histone posttranslational modification, lysine methacrylation (Kmea), corresponding to a structural isomer of crotonyllysine. We validate the identity of this modification using diverse chemical approaches and further confirm the occurrence of this type of histone mark by pan specific and site-specific anti-methacryllysine antibodies. In total, we identify 27 Kmea modified histone sites in HeLa cells using affinity enrichment with a pan Kmea antibody and mass spectrometry. Subsequent biochemical studies show that histone Kmea is a dynamic mark, which is controlled by HAT1 as a methacryltransferase and SIRT2 as a de-methacrylase. Altogether, these investigations uncover a new type of enzyme-catalyzed histone modification and suggest that methacrylyl-CoA generating metabolism is part of a growing number of epigenome-associated metabolic pathways.
  4. Johnson, Michael David (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT Analysis of the genes retained in the minimized Mycoplasma JCVI-Syn3A genome established that systems that repair or preempt metabolite damage are essential to life. Several genes known to have such functions were identified and experimentally validated, including 5-formyltetrahydrofolate cycloligase, coenzyme A (CoA) disulfide reductase, and certain hydrolases. Furthermore, we discovered that an enigmatic YqeK hydrolase domain fused to NadD has a novel proofreading function in NAD synthesis and could double as a MutT-like sanitizing enzyme for the nucleotide pool. Finally, we combined metabolomics and cheminformatics approaches to extend the core metabolic map of JCVI-Syn3A to include promiscuous enzymatic reactions and spontaneous side reactions. This extension revealed that several key metabolite damage control systems remain to be identified in JCVI-Syn3A, such as that for methylglyoxal. IMPORTANCE Metabolite damage and repair mechanisms are being increasingly recognized. We present here compelling genetic and biochemical evidence for the universal importance of these mechanisms by demonstrating that stripping a genome down to its barest essentials leaves metabolite damage control systems in place. Furthermore, our metabolomic and cheminformatic results point to the existence of a network of metabolite damage and damage control reactions that extends far beyond the corners of it that have been characterizedmore »so far. In sum, there can be little room left to doubt that metabolite damage and the systems that counter it are mainstream metabolic processes that cannot be separated from life itself.« less
  5. Abstract Benzaldehyde, the simplest aromatic aldehyde, is one of the most wide-spread volatiles that serves as a pollinator attractant, flavor, and antifungal compound. However, the enzyme responsible for its formation in plants remains unknown. Using a combination of in vivo stable isotope labeling, classical biochemical, proteomics and genetic approaches, we show that in petunia benzaldehyde is synthesized via the β-oxidative pathway in peroxisomes by a heterodimeric enzyme consisting of α and β subunits, which belong to the NAD(P)-binding Rossmann-fold superfamily. Both subunits are alone catalytically inactive but, when mixed in equal amounts, form an active enzyme, which exhibits strict substrate specificity towards benzoyl-CoA and uses NADPH as a cofactor. Alpha subunits can form functional heterodimers with phylogenetically distant β subunits, but not all β subunits partner with α subunits, at least in Arabidopsis. Analysis of spatial, developmental and rhythmic expression of genes encoding α and β subunits revealed that expression of the gene for the α subunit likely plays a key role in regulating benzaldehyde biosynthesis.