Protein acylation, exemplified by lysine acetylation, is a type of indispensable and widespread protein posttranslational modification in eukaryotes. Functional annotation of various lysine acetyltransferases (KATs) is critical to understanding their regulatory roles in abundant biological processes. Traditional radiometric and immunosorbent assays have found broad use in KAT study but have intrinsic limitations. Designing acyl–coenzyme A (CoA) reporter molecules bearing chemoselective chemical warhead groups as surrogates of the native cofactor acetyl-CoA for bioorthogonal labeling of KAT substrates has come into a technical innovation in recent years. This chemical biology platform equips molecular biologists with empowering tools in acyltransferase activity detection and substrate profiling. In the bioorthogonal labeling, protein substrates are first enzymatically modified with a functionalized acyl group. Subsequently, the chemical warhead on the acyl chain conjugates with either an imaging chromophore or an affinity handle or any other appropriate probes through an orthogonal chemical ligation. This bioorganic strategy reformats the chemically inert acetylation and acylation marks into a chemically maneuverable functionality and generates measurable signals without recourse to radioisotopes or antibodies. It offers ample opportunities for facile sensitive detection of KAT activity with temporal and spatial resolutions as well as allows for chemoproteomic profiling of protein acetylation pertaining to specificmore »
This content will become publicly available on April 13, 2023
Chemoproteomic Profiling of Protein Substrates of a Major Lysine Acetyltransferase in the Native Cellular Context
The family of lysine acetyltransferases (KATs) regulates epigenetics and signaling pathways in eukaryotic cells. So far, knowledge of different KAT members contributing to the cellular acetylome is limited, which limits our understanding of biological functions of KATs in physiology and disease. Here, we found that a clickable acyl-CoA reporter, 3-azidopropanoyl CoA (3AZ-CoA), presented remarkable cell permeability and effectively acylated proteins in cells. We rationally engineered the major KAT member, histone acetyltransferase 1 (HAT1), to generate its mutant forms that displayed excellent bio-orthogonal activity for 3AZ-CoA in substrate labeling. We were able to apply the bio-orthogonal enzyme–cofactor pair combined with SILAC proteomics to achieve HAT1 substrate targeting, enrichment, and proteomic profiling in living cells. A total of 123 protein substrates of HAT1 were disclosed, underlining the multifactorial functions of this important enzyme than hitherto known. This study demonstrates the first example of utilizing bio-orthogonal reporters as a chemoproteomic strategy for substrate mapping of individual KAT isoforms in the native biological contexts.
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