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null (Ed.)Paneth cells are the primary source of C-type lysozyme, a b-1,4-N-acetylmuramoylhydrolase that enzymatically processes bacterial cell walls. Paneth cells are normally present in human cecum and ascending colon, but are rarely found in descending colon and rectum; Paneth cell metaplasia in this region and aberrant lysozyme production are hallmarks of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pathology. Here, we examined the impact of aberrant lysozyme production in colonic inflammation. Targeted disruption of Paneth cell lysozyme (Lyz1) protected mice from experimental colitis. Lyz1-deficiency diminished intestinal immune responses to bacterial molecular patterns and resulted in the expansion of lysozyme-sensitive mucolytic bacteria, including Ruminococcus gnavus, a Crohn’s disease-associated pathobiont. Ectopic lysozyme production in colonic epithelium suppressed lysozyme-sensitive bacteria and exacerbated colitis. Transfer of R. gnavus into Lyz1/ hosts elicited a type 2 immune response, causing epithelial reprograming and enhanced anti-colitogenic capacity. In contrast, in lysozyme-intact hosts, processed R. gnavus drove pro-inflammatory responses. Thus, Paneth cell lysozyme balances intestinal anti- and pro-inflammatory responses, with implications for IBD.more » « less
Human intestinal enteroids derived from adult stem cells offer a relevant ex vivo system to study biological processes of the human gut. They recreate cellular and functional features of the intestinal epithelium of the small intestine (enteroids) or colon (colonoids) albeit limited by the lack of associated cell types that help maintain tissue homeostasis and respond to external challenges. In the gut, innate immune cells interact with the epithelium, support barrier function, and deploy effector functions. We have established a co‐culture system of enteroid/colonoid monolayers and underlying macrophages and polymorphonuclear neutrophils to recapitulate the cellular framework of the human intestinal epithelial niche. Enteroids are generated from biopsies or resected tissue from any segment of the human gut and maintained in long‐term cultures as three‐dimensional structures through supplementation of stem cell growth factors. Immune cells are isolated from fresh human whole blood or frozen peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Monocytes from PBMC are differentiated into macrophages by cytokine stimulation prior to co‐culture. The methods are divided into the two main components of the model: (1) generating enteroid/colonoid monolayers and isolating immune cells and (2) assembly of enteroid/colonoid‐immune cell co‐cultures with separate apical and basolateral compartments. Co‐cultures containing macrophages can be maintained for 48 hr while those involving neutrophils, due to their shorter life span, remain viable for 4 hr. Enteroid‐immune co‐cultures enable multiple outcome measures, including transepithelial resistance, production of cytokines/chemokines, phenotypic analysis of immune cells, tissue immunofluorescence imaging, protein or mRNA expression, antigen or microbe uptake, and other cellular functions. © 2020 Wiley Periodicals LLC.
Basic Protocol 1: Seeding enteroid fragments onto Transwells for monolayer formation Alternate Protocol: Seeding enteroid fragments for monolayer formation using trituration Basic Protocol 2: Isolation of monocytes and derivation of immune cells from human peripheral blood Basic Protocol 3: Isolation of neutrophils from human peripheral blood Basic Protocol 4: Assembly of enteroid/macrophage or enteroid/neutrophil co‐culture
Intestinal stem cells are non-quiescent, dividing epithelial cells that rapidly differentiate into progenitor cells of the absorptive and secretory cell lineages. The kinetics of this process is rapid such that the epithelium is replaced weekly. To determine how the transcriptome and proteome keep pace with rapid differentiation, we developed a new cell sorting method to purify mouse colon epithelial cells. Here we show that alternative mRNA splicing and polyadenylation dominate changes in the transcriptome as stem cells differentiate into progenitors. In contrast, as progenitors differentiate into mature cell types, changes in mRNA levels dominate the transcriptome. RNA processing targets regulators of cell cycle, RNA, cell adhesion, SUMOylation, and Wnt and Notch signaling. Additionally, global proteome profiling detected >2,800 proteins and revealed RNA:protein patterns of abundance and correlation. Paired together, these data highlight new potentials for autocrine and feedback regulation and provide new insights into cell state transitions in the crypt.
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a life-threatening intestinal disease, is becoming a larger proportionate cause of morbidity and mortality in premature infants. To date, therapeutic options remain elusive. Based on recent cell therapy studies, we investigated the effect of a human placental-derived stem cell (hPSC) therapy on intestinal damage in an experimental NEC rat pup model. NEC was induced in newborn Sprague-Dawley rat pups for 4 days via formula feeding, hypoxia, and LPS. NEC pups received intraperitoneal (ip) injections of either saline or hPSC (NEC-hPSC) at 32 and 56 h into NEC induction. At 4 days, intestinal macroscopic and histological damage, epithelial cell composition, and inflammatory marker expression of the ileum were assessed. Breastfed (BF) littermates were used as controls. NEC pups developed significant bowel dilation and fragility in the ileum. Further, NEC induced loss of normal villi-crypt morphology, disruption of epithelial proliferation and apoptosis, and loss of critical progenitor/stem cell and Paneth cell populations in the crypt. hPSC treatment improved macroscopic intestinal health with reduced ileal dilation and fragility. Histologically, hPSC administration had a significant reparative effect on the villi-crypt morphology and epithelium. In addition to a trend of decreased inflammatory marker expression, hPSC-NEC pups had increased epithelial proliferation and decreased apoptosis when compared with NEC littermates. Further, the intestinal stem cell and crypt niche that include Paneth cells, SOX9 + cells, and LGR5 + stem cells were restored with hPSC therapy. Together, these data demonstrate hPSC can promote epithelial healing of NEC intestinal damage. NEW & NOTEWORTHY These studies demonstrate a human placental-derived stem cell (hPSC) therapeutic strategy for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). In an experimental model of NEC, hPSC administration improved macroscopic intestinal health, ameliorated epithelial morphology, and supported the intestinal stem cell niche. Our data suggest that hPSC are a potential therapeutic approach to attenuate established intestinal NEC damage. Further, we show hPSC are a novel research tool that can be utilized to elucidate critical neonatal repair mechanisms to overcome NEC.more » « less
Immunosurveillance of the gastrointestinal epithelium by mononuclear phagocytes (MNPs) is essential for maintaining gut health. However, studying the complex interplay between the human gastrointestinal epithelium and MNPs such as dendritic cells (DCs) is difficult, since traditional cell culture systems lack complexity, and animal models may not adequately represent human tissues. Microphysiological systems, or tissue chips, are an attractive alternative for these investigations, because they model functional features of specific tissues or organs using microscale culture platforms that recreate physiological tissue microenvironments. However, successful integration of multiple of tissue types on a tissue chip platform to reproduce physiological cell-cell interactions remains a challenge. We previously developed a tissue chip system, the gut organoid flow chip (GOFlowChip), for long term culture of 3-D pluripotent stem cell-derived human intestinal organoids. Here, we optimized the GOFlowChip platform to build a complex microphysiological immune-cell-epithelial cell co-culture model in order to study DC-epithelial interactions in human stomach. We first tested different tubing materials and chip configurations to optimize DC loading onto the GOFlowChip and demonstrated that DC culture on the GOFlowChip for up to 20 h did not impact DC activation status or viability. However, Transwell chemotaxis assays and live confocal imaging revealed that Matrigel, the extracellular matrix (ECM) material commonly used for organoid culture, prevented DC migration towards the organoids and the establishment of direct MNP-epithelial contacts. Therefore, we next evaluated DC chemotaxis through alternative ECM materials including Matrigel-collagen mixtures and synthetic hydrogels. A polysaccharide-based synthetic hydrogel, VitroGel®-ORGANOID-3 (V-ORG-3), enabled significantly increased DC chemotaxis through the matrix, supported organoid survival and growth, and did not significantly alter DC activation or viability. On the GOFlowChip, DCs that were flowed into the chip migrated rapidly through the V-ORG matrix and reached organoids embedded deep within the chip, with increased interactions between DCs and gastric organoids. The successful integration of DCs and V-ORG-3 embedded gastric organoids into the GOFlowChip platform now permits real-time imaging of MNP-epithelial interactions and other investigations of the complex interplay between gastrointestinal MNPs and epithelial cells in their response to pathogens, candidate drugs and mucosal vaccines.more » « less