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- COVID Information Commons
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null (Ed.)The newly discovered Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been globally spreading and causing hundreds of thousands of deaths around the world as of its first emergence in late 2019. The rapid outbreak of this disease has overwhelmed health care infrastructures and arises the need to allocate medical equipment and resources more efficiently. The early diagnosis of this disease will lead to the rapid separation of COVID-19 and non-COVID cases, which will be helpful for health care authorities to optimize resource allocation plans and early prevention of the disease. In this regard, a growing number of studies are investigating the capability of deep learning for early diagnosis of COVID-19. Computed tomography (CT) scans have shown distinctive features and higher sensitivity compared to other diagnostic tests, in particular the current gold standard, i.e., the Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) test. Current deep learning-based algorithms are mainly developed based on Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) to identify COVID-19 pneumonia cases. CNNs, however, require extensive data augmentation and large datasets to identify detailed spatial relations between image instances. Furthermore, existing algorithms utilizing CT scans, either extend slice-level predictions to patient-level ones using a simple thresholding mechanism or rely on a sophisticated infection segmentation to identify the disease. In this paper, we propose a two-stage fully automated CT-based framework for identification of COVID-19 positive cases referred to as the “COVID-FACT”. COVID-FACT utilizes Capsule Networks, as its main building blocks and is, therefore, capable of capturing spatial information. In particular, to make the proposed COVID-FACT independent from sophisticated segmentations of the area of infection, slices demonstrating infection are detected at the first stage and the second stage is responsible for classifying patients into COVID and non-COVID cases. COVID-FACT detects slices with infection, and identifies positive COVID-19 cases using an in-house CT scan dataset, containing COVID-19, community acquired pneumonia, and normal cases. Based on our experiments, COVID-FACT achieves an accuracy of 90.82 % , a sensitivity of 94.55 % , a specificity of 86.04 % , and an Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 0.98, while depending on far less supervision and annotation, in comparison to its counterparts.more » « less
Hemanth, Jude (Ed.)Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Imaging tests such as chest X-ray (CXR) and computed tomography (CT) can provide useful information to clinical staff for facilitating a diagnosis of COVID-19 in a more efficient and comprehensive manner. As a breakthrough of artificial intelligence (AI), deep learning has been applied to perform COVID-19 infection region segmentation and disease classification by analyzing CXR and CT data. However, prediction uncertainty of deep learning models for these tasks, which is very important to safety-critical applications like medical image processing, has not been comprehensively investigated. In this work, we propose a novel ensemble deep learning model through integrating bagging deep learning and model calibration to not only enhance segmentation performance, but also reduce prediction uncertainty. The proposed method has been validated on a large dataset that is associated with CXR image segmentation. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can improve the segmentation performance, as well as decrease prediction uncertainty.more » « less
During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, rapid and accurate triage of patients at the emergency department is critical to inform decision-making. We propose a data-driven approach for automatic prediction of deterioration risk using a deep neural network that learns from chest X-ray images and a gradient boosting model that learns from routine clinical variables. Our AI prognosis system, trained using data from 3661 patients, achieves an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.786 (95% CI: 0.745–0.830) when predicting deterioration within 96 hours. The deep neural network extracts informative areas of chest X-ray images to assist clinicians in interpreting the predictions and performs comparably to two radiologists in a reader study. In order to verify performance in a real clinical setting, we silently deployed a preliminary version of the deep neural network at New York University Langone Health during the first wave of the pandemic, which produced accurate predictions in real-time. In summary, our findings demonstrate the potential of the proposed system for assisting front-line physicians in the triage of COVID-19 patients.
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive, irreversible, and usually fatal lung disease of unknown reasons, generally affecting the elderly population. Early diagnosis of IPF is crucial for triaging patients’ treatment planning into anti‐fibrotic treatment or treatments for other causes of pulmonary fibrosis. However, current IPF diagnosis workflow is complicated and time‐consuming, which involves collaborative efforts from radiologists, pathologists, and clinicians and it is largely subject to inter‐observer variability.
The purpose of this work is to develop a deep learning‐based automated system that can diagnose subjects with IPF among subjects with interstitial lung disease (ILD) using an axial chest computed tomography (CT) scan. This work can potentially enable timely diagnosis decisions and reduce inter‐observer variability.
Our dataset contains CT scans from 349 IPF patients and 529 non‐IPF ILD patients. We used 80% of the dataset for training and validation purposes and 20% as the holdout test set. We proposed a two‐stage model: at stage one, we built a multi‐scale, domain knowledge‐guided attention model (MSGA) that encouraged the model to focus on specific areas of interest to enhance model explainability, including both high‐ and medium‐resolution attentions; at stage two, we collected the output from MSGA and constructed a random forest (RF) classifier for patient‐level diagnosis, to further boost model accuracy. RF classifier is utilized as a final decision stage since it is interpretable, computationally fast, and can handle correlated variables. Model utility was examined by (1) accuracy, represented by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) with standard deviation (SD), and (2) explainability, illustrated by the visual examination of the estimated attention maps which showed the important areas for model diagnostics.
During the training and validation stage, we observe that when we provide no guidance from domain knowledge, the IPF diagnosis model reaches acceptable performance (AUC±SD = 0.93±0.07), but lacks explainability; when including only guided high‐ or medium‐resolution attention, the learned attention maps are not satisfactory; when including both high‐ and medium‐resolution attention, under certain hyperparameter settings, the model reaches the highest AUC among all experiments (AUC±SD = 0.99±0.01) and the estimated attention maps concentrate on the regions of interests for this task. Three best‐performing hyperparameter selections according to MSGA were applied to the holdout test set and reached comparable model performance to that of the validation set.
Our results suggest that, for a task with only scan‐level labels available, MSGA+RF can utilize the population‐level domain knowledge to guide the training of the network, which increases both model accuracy and explainability.
Deep generative models have enabled the automated synthesis of high-quality data for diverse applications. However, the most effective generative models are specialized to data from a single domain (e.g., images or text). Real-world applications such as healthcare require multi-modal data from multiple domains (e.g., both images and corresponding text), which are difficult to acquire due to limited availability and privacy concerns and are much harder to synthesize. To tackle this joint synthesis challenge, we propose an End-to-end MultImodal X-ray genERative model (EMIXER) for jointly synthesizing x-ray images and corresponding free-text reports, all conditional on diagnosis labels. EMIXER is an conditional generative adversarial model by 1) generating an image based on a label, 2) encoding the image to a hidden embedding, 3) producing the corresponding text via a hierarchical decoder from the image embedding, and 4) a joint discriminator for assessing both the image and the corresponding text. EMIXER also enables self-supervision to leverage vast amount of unlabeled data. Extensive experiments with real X-ray reports data illustrate how data augmentation using synthesized multimodal samples can improve the performance of a variety of supervised tasks including COVID-19 X-ray classification with very limited samples. The quality of generated images and reports are also confirmed by radiologists. We quantitatively show that EMIXER generated synthetic datasets can augment X-ray image classification, report generation models to achieve 5.94% and 6.9% improvement on models trained only on real data samples. Taken together, our results highlight the promise of state of generative models to advance clinical machine learning.more » « less