- Award ID(s):
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Key Radiological Features of COVID-19 Chest CT Scans with a Focuson Special Subgroups: A Literature ReviewAbstract: In 2019, a series of novel pneumonia cases later known as Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) were reported in Wuhan, China. Chest computed tomography (CT) has played a key role in the management and prognostication in COVID-19 patients. CT has demonstrated 98%sensitivity in detecting COVID-19, including identifying lung abnormalities that are suggestive of COVID-19, even among asymptomatic individuals. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive literature review of 17 published studies, including focuses on three subgroups, pediatric patients, pregnant women, and patients over 60 years old, to identify key characteristics of chest CT in COVID-19 patients. Results: Our comprehensive review of the 17 studies concluded that the main CT imaging finding is ground glass opacities (GGOs) regardless of patient age. We also identified that crazy paving pattern, reverse halo sign, smooth or irregular septal thickening, and pleural thickening may serve as indicators of disease progression. Lesions on CT scans were dominantly distributed in the peripheral zone with multilobar involvement, specifically concentrated in the lower lobes. In the patients over 60 years old, the proportion of substantial lobe involvement was higher than the controlgroup and crazy paving signs, bronchodilation, and pleural thickening were more commonly present. Conclusion: Based on all 17 studies, CTmore »
Evidence for Telemedicine’s Ongoing Transformation of Health Care Delivery Since the Onset of COVID-19: Retrospective Observational StudyBackground The surge of telemedicine use during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic has been well documented. However, scarce evidence considers the use of telemedicine in the subsequent period. Objective This study aims to evaluate use patterns of video-based telemedicine visits for ambulatory care and urgent care provision over the course of recurring pandemic waves in 1 large health system in New York City (NYC) and what this means for health care delivery. Methods Retrospective electronic health record (EHR) data of patients from January 1, 2020, to February 28, 2022, were used to longitudinally track and analyze telemedicine and in-person visit volumes across ambulatory care specialties and urgent care, as well as compare them to a prepandemic baseline (June-November 2019). Diagnosis codes to differentiate suspected COVID-19 visits from non–COVID-19 visits, as well as evaluating COVID-19–based telemedicine use over time, were compared to the total number of COVID-19–positive cases in the same geographic region (city level). The time series data were segmented based on change-point analysis, and variances in visit trends were compared between the segments. Results The emergence of COVID-19 prompted an early increase in the number of telemedicine visits across the urgent care and ambulatory care settings. Thismore »
Adapting for the COVID-19 pandemic in Ecuador, a characterization of hospital strategies and patientsCalderaro, Adriana (Ed.)The World Health Organization (WHO) declared coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) a global pandemic on 11 March 2020. In Ecuador, the first case of COVID-19 was recorded on 29 February 2020. Despite efforts to control its spread, SARS-CoV-2 overran the Ecuadorian public health system, which became one of the most affected in Latin America on 24 April 2020. The Hospital General del Sur de Quito (HGSQ) had to transition from a general to a specific COVID-19 health center in a short period of time to fulfill the health demand from patients with respiratory afflictions. Here, we summarized the implementations applied in the HGSQ to become a COVID-19 exclusive hospital, including the rearrangement of hospital rooms and a triage strategy based on a severity score calculated through an artificial intelligence (AI)-assisted chest computed tomography (CT). Moreover, we present clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory data from 75 laboratory tested COVID-19 patients, which represent the first outbreak of Quito city. The majority of patients were male with a median age of 50 years. We found differences in laboratory parameters between intensive care unit (ICU) and non-ICU cases considering C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, and lymphocytes. Sensitivity and specificity of the AI-assisted chest CT were 21.4% and 66.7%,more »
Abstract This project is funded by the US National Science Foundation (NSF) through their NSF RAPID program under the title “Modeling Corona Spread Using Big Data Analytics.” The project is a joint effort between the Department of Computer & Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at FAU and a research group from LexisNexis Risk Solutions. The novel coronavirus Covid-19 originated in China in early December 2019 and has rapidly spread to many countries around the globe, with the number of confirmed cases increasing every day. Covid-19 is officially a pandemic. It is a novel infection with serious clinical manifestations, including death, and it has reached at least 124 countries and territories. Although the ultimate course and impact of Covid-19 are uncertain, it is not merely possible but likely that the disease will produce enough severe illness to overwhelm the worldwide health care infrastructure. Emerging viral pandemics can place extraordinary and sustained demands on public health and health systems and on providers of essential community services. Modeling the Covid-19 pandemic spread is challenging. But there are data that can be used to project resource demands. Estimates of the reproductive number (R) of SARS-CoV-2 show that at the beginning of the epidemic, each infectedmore »
Online patient portals become important during disruptions to in-person health care, like when cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and other respiratory viruses rise, yet underlying structural inequalities associated with race, socio-economic status, and other socio-demographic characteristics may affect their use. We analyzed a population-based survey to identify disparities within the United States in access to online portals during the early period of COVID-19 in 2020.
Materials and Methods
The National Cancer Institute fielded the 2020 Health and Information National Trends Survey from February to June 2020. We conducted multivariable analysis to identify socio-demographic characteristics of US patients who were offered and accessed online portals, and reasons for nonuse.
Less than half of insured adult patients reported accessing an online portal in the prior 12 months, and this was less common among patients who are male, are Hispanic, have less than a college degree, have Medicaid insurance, have no regular provider, or have no internet. Reasons for nonuse include: wanting to speak directly to a provider, not having an online record, concerns about privacy, and discomfort with technology.
Despite the rapid expansion of digital health technologies due to COVID-19, we found persistent socio-demographic disparities in access to patient portals. Ensuringmore »
Expanding the use of online portals requires explicitly addressing fundamental inequities to prevent exacerbating existing disparities, particularly during surges in cases of COVID-19 and other respiratory viruses that tax health care resources.