- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Green Chemistry
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- 9523 to 9533
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Heterogeneous catalysis by ultra-small bimetallic nanoparticles surpassing homogeneous catalysis for carbon–carbon bond forming reactionsPalladium catalyzed cross-coupling reactions represent a significant advancement in contemporary organic synthesis as these reactions are of strategic importance in the area of pharmaceutical drug discovery and development. Supported palladium-based catalysts are highly sought-after in carbon–carbon bond forming catalytic processes to ensure catalyst recovery and reuse while preventing product contamination. This paper reports the development of heterogeneous Pd-based bimetallic catalysts supported on fumed silica that have high activity and selectivity matching those of homogeneous catalysts, eliminating the catalyst's leaching and sintering and allowing efficient recycling of the catalysts. Palladium and base metal (Cu, Ni or Co) contents of less than 1.0 wt% loading are deposited on a mesoporous fumed silica support (surface area SA BET = 350 m 2 g −1 ) using strong electrostatic adsorption (SEA) yielding homogeneously alloyed nanoparticles with an average size of 1.3 nm. All bimetallic catalysts were found to be highly active toward Suzuki cross-coupling (SCC) reactions with superior activity and stability for the CuPd/SiO 2 catalyst. A low CuPd/SiO 2 loading (Pd: 0.3 mol%) completes the conversion of bromobenzene and phenylboronic acid to biphenyl in 30 minutes under ambient conditions in water/ethanol solvent. In contrast, monometallic Pd/SiO 2 (Pd: 0.3 mol%) completes the samemore »
Ultra-thin ZrO 2 overcoating on CuO-ZnO-Al 2 O 3 catalyst by atomic layer deposition for improved catalytic performance of CO 2 hydrogenation to dimethyl ether
An ultra-thin overcoating of zirconium oxide (ZrO2) film on CuO-ZnO-Al2O3(CZA) catalysts by atomic layer deposition (ALD) was proved to enhance the catalytic performance of CZA/HZSM-5 (H form of Zeolite Socony Mobil-5) bifunctional catalysts for hydrogenation of CO2to dimethyl ether (DME). Under optimal reaction conditions (i.e. 240 °C and 2.8 MPa), the yield of product DME increased from 17.22% for the bare CZA/HZSM-5 catalysts, to 18.40% for the CZA catalyst after 5 cycles of ZrO2ALD with HZSM-5 catalyst. All the catalysts modified by ZrO2ALD displayed significantly improved catalytic stability of hydrogenation of CO2to DME reaction, compared to that of CZA/HZSM-5 bifunctional catalysts. The loss of DME yield in 100 h of reaction was greatly mitigated from 6.20% (loss of absolute value) to 3.01% for the CZA catalyst with 20 cycles of ZrO2ALD overcoating. Characterizations including hydrogen temperature programmed reduction, x-ray powder diffraction, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that there was strong interaction between Cu active centers and ZrO2.
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Cerium oxide (ceria, CeO 2−x ) has been traditionally used as a catalyst support functionalized with metal nanoparticles or synthesized with metal dopants for a variety of applications ranging from catalytic converters to solid oxide fuel cells. In a departure from these typical heterogeneous motifs, we explore the interactions of nano-CeO 2−x systems with organometallic oxidation catalysts in organic solvents. Ceria is used here both as an organically-capped colloid and as an uncapped insoluble nanopowder. Both the colloid and nanopowder act as terminal oxidants by accepting hydrogen atoms from a ruthenium Noyori–Ikariya hydride complex. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that CeO 2−x can oxidize an organometallic hydride. Building on this concept, we show the uncapped CeO 2−x powder also acts as the terminal acceptor in catalytic alcohol dehydrogenation reactions, utilizing iridium pyridine sulfonamide catalysts under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The coupling of homogeneous oxidation catalysts with cerium oxide demonstrates the versatility of CeO 2−x and a bridging of concepts in homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis.
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