Integrity constraints such as functional dependencies (FD), and multivalued dependencies (MVD)
are fundamental in database schema design. Likewise, probabilistic conditional independences (CI)
are crucial for reasoning about multivariate probability distributions. The implication problem
studies whether a set of constraints (antecedents) implies another constraint (consequent), and
has been investigated in both the database and the AI literature, under the assumption that all
constraints hold exactly. However, many applications today consider constraints that hold only
approximately. In this paper we define an approximate implication as a linear inequality between
the degree of satisfaction of the antecedents and consequent, and we study the relaxation problem:
when does an exact implication relax to an approximate implication? We use information theory
to define the degree of satisfaction, and prove several results. First, we show that any implication
from a set of data dependencies (MVDs+FDs) can be relaxed to a simple linear inequality with
a factor at most quadratic in the number of variables; when the consequent is an FD, the factor
can be reduced to 1. Second, we prove that there exists an implication between CIs that does not
admit any relaxation; however, we prove that every implication between CIs relaxes “in the limit”.
Finally, we show that the implication problem for differential constraints in market basket analysis
also admits a relaxation with a factor equal to 1. Our results recover, and sometimes extend, several
previously known results about the implication problem: implication of MVDs can be checked by
considering only 2tuple relations, and the implication of differential constraints for frequent item
sets can be checked by considering only databases containing a single transaction.
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ModelFree Reinforcement Learning for Lexicographic OmegaRegular Objectives
We study the problem of finding optimal strategies in Markov decision processes with lexicographic ωregular objectives, which are ordered collections of ordinary ωregular objectives. The goal is to compute strategies that maximise the probability of satisfaction of the first 𝜔regular objective; subject to that, the strategy should also maximise the probability of satisfaction of the second ωregular objective; then the third and so forth. For instance, one may want to guarantee critical requirements first, functional ones second and only then focus on the nonfunctional ones. We show how to harness the classic offtheshelf modelfree reinforcement learning techniques to solve this problem and evaluate their performance on four case studies.
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 Award ID(s):
 2009022
 NSFPAR ID:
 10329426
 Editor(s):
 Huisman, M.; Păsăreanu, C.; Zhan, N.
 Date Published:
 Journal Name:
 Formal Methods (FM 2021)
 Page Range / eLocation ID:
 142159
 Format(s):
 Medium: X
 Sponsoring Org:
 National Science Foundation
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