skip to main content

This content will become publicly available on May 31, 2023

Title: Remote-Controlled Exchange Rates by Photoswitchable Internal Catalysis of Dynamic Covalent Bonds
The transesterification rate of boronate esters with diols is tunable over 14 orders of magnitude. Rate acceleration is achieved by internal base catalysis, which lowers the barrier for proton transfer. Here we report a photoswitchable internal catalyst that tunes the rate of boronic ester/diol exchange over 4 orders of magnitude. We employed an acylhydrazone molecular photoswitch, which forms a thermally stable but photoreversible intramolecular H-bond, to gate the activity of the internal base catalyst in 8-quinoline boronic ester. The photoswitch is bidirectional and can be cycled repeatedly. The intramolecular H-bond is found to be essential to the design of this photoswitchable internal catalyst, as protonating the quinoline with external sources of acid has little effect on the exchange rate.
Authors:
; ; ;
Award ID(s):
1847948
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10330935
Journal Name:
Journal of the American Chemical Society
ISSN:
0002-7863
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. A Cu-catalyzed strategy has been developed that harnesses a radical relay mechanism to intercept a distal C-centered radical for C–C bond formation. This approach enables selective δ C–H (hetero)arylation of sulfonamides via intramolecular hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) by an N-centered radical. The radical relay is both initiated and terminated by a Cu catalyst, which enables incorporation of arenes and heteroarenes by cross-coupling with boronic acids. The broad scope and utility of this catalytic method for δ C–H arylation is shown, along with mechanistic probes for selectivity of the HAT mechanism. A catalytic, asymmetric variant is also presented, as well as a method for accessing 1,1-diaryl-pyrrolidines via iterative δ C–H functionalizations.
  2. A series of molecular rotors was designed to study and measure the rate accelerating effects of an intramolecular hydrogen bond. The rotors form a weak neutral O–H⋯OC hydrogen bond in the planar transition state (TS) of the bond rotation process. The rotational barrier of the hydrogen bonding rotors was dramatically lower (9.9 kcal mol −1 ) than control rotors which could not form hydrogen bonds. The magnitude of the stabilization was significantly larger than predicted based on the independently measured strength of a similar O–H⋯OC hydrogen bond (1.5 kcal mol −1 ). The origins of the large transition state stabilization were studied via experimental substituent effect and computational perturbation analyses. Energy decomposition analysis of the hydrogen bonding interaction revealed a significant reduction in the repulsive component of the hydrogen bonding interaction. The rigid framework of the molecular rotors positions and preorganizes the interacting groups in the transition state. This study demonstrates that with proper design a single hydrogen bond can lead to a TS stabilization that is greater than the intrinsic interaction energy, which has applications in catalyst design and in the study of enzyme mechanisms.
  3. A series of molecular rotors was designed to study and measure the rate accelerating effects of an intramolecular hydrogen bond. The rotors form a weak neutral O–H/O]C hydrogen bond in the planar transition state (TS) of the bond rotation process. The rotational barrier of the hydrogen bonding rotors was dramatically lower (9.9 kcal mol1) than control rotors which could not form hydrogen bonds. The magnitude of the stabilization was significantly larger than predicted based on the independently measured strength of a similar OH/OC hydrogen bond (1.5 kcal mol-1). The origins of the large transition state stabilization were studied via experimental substituent effect and computational perturbation analyses. Energy decomposition analysis of the hydrogen bonding interaction revealed a significant reduction in the repulsive component of the hydrogen bonding interaction. The rigid framework of the molecular rotors positions and preorganizes the interacting groups in the transition state. This study demonstrates that with proper design a single hydrogen bond can lead to a TS stabilization that is greater than the intrinsic interaction energy, which has applications in catalyst design and in the study of enzyme mechanisms.
  4. Vitrimers, dynamic polymer networks with topology conserving exchange reactions, have emerged as a promising platform for sustainable and reprocessable materials. While prior work has documented how dynamic bonds impact stress relaxation and viscosity, their role on crystallization has not been systematically explored. Precise ethylene vitrimers with 8, 10, or 12 methylene units between boronic ester junctions were investigated to understand the impact of bond exchange on crystallization kinetics and morphology. Compared to linear polyethylene which has been heavily investigated for decades, a long induction period for crystallization is seen in the vitrimers ultimately taking weeks in the densest networks. An increase in melting temperatures ( T m ) of 25–30 K is observed with isothermal crystallization over 30 days. Both C 10 and C 12 networks initially form hexagonal crystals, while the C 10 network transforms to orthorhombic over the 30 day window as observed with wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) and optical microscopy (OM). After 150 days of isothermal crystallization, the three linker lengths led to double diamond (C 8 ), orthorhombic (C 10 ), and hexagonal (C 12 ) crystals indicating the importance of precision on final morphology. Control experiments on a precise, permanent network implicate dynamic bondsmore »as the cause of long-time rearrangements of the crystals, which is critical to understand for applications of semi-crystalline vitrimers. The dynamic bonds also allow the networks to dissolve in water and alcohol-based solvents to monomers, followed by repolymerization while preserving the mechanical properties and melting temperatures.« less
  5. The synthesis of alkylphosphine-substituted α-diimine (DI) ligands and their subsequent addition to Ni(COD) 2 allowed for the preparation of ( iPr2PPr DI)Ni and ( tBu2PPr DI)Ni . The solid state structures of both compounds were found to feature a distorted tetrahedral geometry that is largely consistent with the reported structure of the diphenylphosphine-substituted variant, ( Ph2PPr DI)Ni . To explore and optimize the synthetic utility of this catalyst class, all three compounds were screened for benzaldehyde hydrosilylation activity at 1.0 mol% loading over 3 h at 25 °C. Notably, ( Ph2PPr DI)Ni was found to be the most efficient catalyst while phenyl silane was the most effective reductant. A broad scope of aldehydes and ketones were then hydrosilylated, and the silyl ether products were hydrolyzed to afford alcohols in good yield. When attempts were made to explore ester reduction, inefficient dihydrosilylation was noted for ethyl acetate and no reaction was observed for several additional substrates. However, when an equimolar solution of allyl acetate and phenyl silane was added to 1.0 mol% ( Ph2PPr DI)Ni , complete ester C–O bond hydrosilylation was observed within 30 min at 25 °C to generate propylene and PhSi(OAc) 3 . The scope of this reactionmore »was expanded to include six additional allyl esters, and under neat conditions, turnover frequencies of up to 990 h −1 were achieved. This activity is believed to be the highest reported for transition metal-catalyzed ester C–O bond hydrosilylation. Proposed mechanisms for ( Ph2PPr DI)Ni -mediated carbonyl and allyl ester C–O bond hydrosilylation are also discussed.« less