skip to main content

Title: Efficacy of Heavy Use Area Protection (HUAP) Pads in Poultry Farm
This research focuses on the efficiency of recommended heavy use area protection (HUAP) pads installed in poultry houses utilizing the Choptank River, a tributary of the Chesapeake Bay. The Chesapeake Bay watershed is severely affected by crop agriculture and poultry feeding operations. Water quality degradation along with scarcity of water is a significant concern in this area, suggesting a need for changes in both environmental and groundwater management practices. Our objective in this study was to compare the efficiency of HUAP in reducing litter spillage and nutrient runoff between two poultry houses, one of which was constructed in 2005 and the other in 2009. The poultry house constructed in 2005 did not have HUAP pads initially; they were built in 2006. The poultry house built in 2009 had the pads from the starting point. We collected soil and water samples each month and analyzed them for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), nitrate, nitrite, total nitrogen, phosphate, and other soil properties throughout the year. The pH of soil and water samples was in the range of 6.8–8.0 and 6.5–7.2, respectively. We collected six water samples in total in the ditch, from points at retention ponds near the farm ditch to sites in more » wooded areas on the farm. Water sample B (where ditch water meets retention pond water from the poultry farm) had the highest EC value and nitrate, nitrite, and total nitrogen concentrations compared with other water samples. The subsequent water samples downstream had reduced loads of nutrients. The study results suggest that there was a minimum carryover of nutrients from soil into the runoff water, storm ditches, and adjacent stream. There was also a minimal effect of house cleaning and storm events in raising the concentration of nutrients in soil and water samples at our study sites. The older poultry site had higher total nitrogen and phosphorous surrounding the pads, whereas no elevated levels of nutrients were identified at the newer site. The ability of HUAP pads to hold onto contaminates decreases with age and use. This study also shows that the impacts from poultry activities on surface and groundwater can be minimized by using management practices such as HUAP pads. These practices can reduce pollution in the farm, increase productivity, and save farmers and ranchers time and money in the long run. « less
; ; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract
    Excessive phosphorus (P) applications to croplands can contribute to eutrophication of surface waters through surface runoff and subsurface (leaching) losses. We analyzed leaching losses of total dissolved P (TDP) from no-till corn, hybrid poplar (Populus nigra X P. maximowiczii), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), miscanthus (Miscanthus giganteus), native grasses, and restored prairie, all planted in 2008 on former cropland in Michigan, USA. All crops except corn (13 kg P ha−1 year−1) were grown without P fertilization. Biomass was harvested at the end of each growing season except for poplar. Soil water at 1.2 m depth was sampled weekly to biweekly for TDP determination during March–November 2009–2016 using tension lysimeters. Soil test P (0–25 cm depth) was measured every autumn. Soil water TDP concentrations were usually below levels where eutrophication of surface waters is frequently observed (> 0.02 mg L−1) but often higher than in deep groundwater or nearby streams and lakes. Rates of P leaching, estimated from measured concentrations and modeled drainage, did not differ statistically among cropping systems across years; 7-year cropping system means ranged from 0.035 to 0.072 kg P ha−1 year−1 with large interannual variation. Leached P was positively related to STP, which decreased over the 7 years in all systems. These results indicate that both P-fertilized and unfertilized cropping systems mayMore>>
  2. Abstract

    Stream restoration is a popular approach for managing nitrogen (N) in degraded, flashy urban streams. Here, we investigated the long-term effects of stream restoration involving floodplain reconnection on riparian and in-stream N transport and transformation in an urban stream in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. We examined relationships between hydrology, chemistry, and biology using a Before/After-Control/Impact (BACI) study design to determine how hydrologic flashiness, nitrate (NO3) concentrations (mg/L), and N flux, both NO3and total N (kg/yr), changed after the restoration and floodplain hydrologic reconnection to its stream channel. We examined two independent surface water and groundwater data sets (EPA and USGS) collected from 2002–2012 at our study sites in the Minebank Run watershed. Restoration was completed during 2004 and 2005. Afterward, the monthly hydrologic flashiness index, based on mean monthly discharge, decreased over time from 2002 and 2008. However, from 2008–2012 hydrologic flashiness returned to pre-restoration levels. Based on the EPA data set, NO3concentration in groundwater and surface water was significantly less after restoration while the control site showed no change. DOC and NO3were negatively related before and after restoration suggesting C limitation of N transformations. Long-term trends in surface water NO3concentrations based on USGS surface water data showed downwardmore »trends after restoration at both the restored and control sites, whereas specific conductance showed no trend. Comparisons of NO3concentrations with Clconcentrations and specific conductance in both ground and surface waters suggested that NO3reduction after restoration was not due to dilution or load reductions from the watershed. Modeled NO3flux decreased post restoration over time but the rate of decrease was reduced likely due to failure of restoration features that facilitated N transformations. Groundwater NO3concentrations varied among stream features suggesting that some engineered features may be functionally better at creating optimal conditions for N retention. However, some engineered features eroded and failed post restoration thereby reducing efficacy of the stream restoration to reduce flashiness and NO3flux. N management via stream restoration will be most effective where flashiness can be reduced and DOC made available for denitrifiers. Stream restoration may be an important component of holistic watershed management including stormwater management and nutrient source control if stream restoration and floodplain reconnection can be done in a manner to resist the erosive effects of large storm events that can degrade streams to pre-restoration conditions. Long-term evolution of water quality functions in response to degradation of restored stream channels and floodplains from urban stressors and storms over time warrants further study, however.

    « less
  3. Abstract
    Site description. This data package consists of data obtained from sampling surface soil (the 0-7.6 cm depth profile) in black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) dominated forest and black needlerush (Juncus roemerianus) saltmarsh along the Gulf of Mexico coastline in peninsular west-central Florida, USA. This location has a subtropical climate with mean daily temperatures ranging from 15.4 °C in January to 27.8 °C in August, and annual precipitation of 1336 mm. Precipitation falls as rain primarily between June and September. Tides are semi-diurnal, with 0.57 m median amplitudes during the year preceding sampling (U.S. NOAA National Ocean Service, Clearwater Beach, Florida, station 8726724). Sea-level rise is 4.0 ± 0.6 mm per year (1973-2020 trend, mean ± 95 % confidence interval, NOAA NOS Clearwater Beach station). The A. germinans mangrove zone is either adjacent to water or fringed on the seaward side by a narrow band of red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle). A near-monoculture of J. roemerianus is often adjacent to and immediately landward of the A. germinans zone. The transition from the mangrove to the J. roemerianus zone is variable in our study area. An abrupt edge between closed-canopy mangrove and J. roemerianus monoculture may extend for up to several hundred metersMore>>
  4. Freshwater salinization syndrome (FSS) refers to the suite of interactive effects of salt ions on degradation of physical, biological,and social systems. Best management practices (BMPs), which are methods to effectively reduce runoff and nonpoint source pollution (stormwater, nutrients, sediments), do not typically consider management of salt pollution. We investigate impacts of FSS on mobilization of salts, nutrients, and metals in urban streams and storm water BMPs by analyzing original data on concentrations and fluxes of salts, nutrients, and metals from 7 urban watersheds in the Mid-Atlantic USA and synthesizing literature data. We also explore future critical research needs through a survey of practitioners and scientists. Our original data show 1) sharp pulses in concentrations of salt ions and metals in urban streams directly following both road salt events and stream restoration construction (e.g.,similar to the way concentrations increase during other soil disturbance activities); 2) sharp declines in pH (acidification) in response to road salt applications because of mobilization of H+ from soil exchange sites by Na+; 3) sharp increases inorganic matter from microbial and algal sources (based on fluorescence spectroscopy) in response to road salt applications, likely because of lysing cells and changes insolubility; 4) substantial retention (~30–40%) of Na+more »in stormwater BMP sediments and floodplains in response to salinization; 5) increased ion exchange and mobilization of diverse salt ions (Na+, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+), nutrients(N, P), and trace metals(Cu, Sr) from stormwater BMPs and restored streams in response to FSS; 6) downstream increasing loads ofCl–, SO42–, Br–, F–,andI–along flowpaths through urbanstreams and P release from urban stormwater BMPs in response to salinization; and 7)a substantial annual reduction (>50%) in Na+concentrations in an urban stream when road salt applications were dramatically reduced, which suggests potential for ecosystem recovery. We compare our original results with published metrics of contaminant retention and release across a broad range of stormwater BMPs from North America and Europe.Overall, urban streams and stormwater BMPs consistently retain Na+ and Cl–but mobilize multiple contaminants based on salt types and salinity levels. Finally, we present our top 10 research questions regarding FSS impacts on urban streams and stormwater BMPs. Reducing diverse chemical cocktails of contaminants mobilized by freshwater salinization is a priority for effectively and holistically restoring urban waters.« less
  5. This study characterizes the impact of the Chesapeake Bay and associated meteorological phenomena on aerosol chemistry during the second Ozone Water-Land Environmental Transition Study (OWLETS-2) field campaign during summer 2018. Measurements of inorganic PM2.5 composition, gas-phase ammonia (NH3), and an array of meteorological parameters were undertaken at Hart-Miller Island (HMI), a land-water transition site just east of downtown Baltimore on the Chesapeake Bay. The observations at HMI were characterized by abnormally high NH3 concentrations (maximum of 19.3 μg m-3, average of 3.83 μg m-3), which were more than a factor of three higher than NH3 levels measured at the closest Atmospheric Ammonia Network (AMoN) site (approximately 45 km away). While sulfate concentrations at HMI agreed quite well with those measured at a regulatory monitoring station 45 km away, aerosol ammonium and nitrate concentrations were significantly higher, due to the ammonia-rich conditions that resulted from the elevated NH3. The high NH3 concentrations were largely due to regional agricultural emissions, including dairy farms in southeastern Pennsylvania and poultry operations in the Delmarva Peninsula (Delaware-Maryland-Virginia). Reduced NH3 deposition during transport over the Chesapeake Bay likely contributed to enhanced concentrations at HMI compared to the more inland AMoN site. Several peak NH3 events were recorded, including the maximum NH3more »observed during OWLETS-2, that appear to originate from a cluster of industrial sources near downtown Baltimore. Such events were all associated with nighttime emissions and advection to HMI under low 15 wind speeds (< 1 m s-1) and stable atmospheric conditions. Our results demonstrate the importance of industrial sources, including several that are not represented in the emissions inventory, on urban air quality. Together with our companion paper, which examines aerosol liquid water and pH during OWLETS-2, we highlight unique processes affecting urban air quality of coastal cities that are distinct from continental locations.« less