skip to main content

This content will become publicly available on May 26, 2023

Title: Enabling ultra-low-voltage switching in BaTiO3
Single crystals of BaTiO3 exhibit small switching fields and energies, but thin-film performance is considerably worse, thus precluding their use in next-generation devices. Here, we demonstrate high-quality BaTiO3 thin films with nearly bulk-like properties. Thickness scaling provides access to the coercive voltages (<100 mV) and fields (<10 kV cm−1) required for future applications and results in a switching energy of <2 J cm−3 (corresponding to <2 aJ per bit in a 10 × 10 × 10 nm3 device). While reduction in film thickness reduces coercive voltage, it does so at the expense of remanent polarization. Depolarization fields impact polar state stability in thicker films but fortunately suppress the coercive field, thus driving a deviation from Janovec–Kay–Dunn scaling and enabling a constant coercive field for films <150 nm in thickness. Switching studies reveal fast speeds (switching times of ~2 ns for 25-nm-thick films with 5-µm-diameter capacitors) and a pathway to subnanosecond switching. Finally, integration of BaTiO3 thin films onto silicon substrates is shown. We also discuss what remains to be demonstrated to enable the use of these materials for next-generation devices.
Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
1708615
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10331657
Journal Name:
Nature Materials
ISSN:
1476-1122
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Amorphous oxide semiconductors (AOSs), specifically those based on ternary cation systems such as Ga-, Si-, and Hf-doped InZnO, have emerged as promising material candidates for application in next-gen transparent electronic and optoelectronic devices. Third cation-doping is a common method used during the manufacturing of amorphous oxide thin film transistors (TFTs), primarily with the intention of suppressing carrier generation during the fabrication of the channel layer of a transistor. However, the incorporation of a third cation species has been observed to negatively affect the carrier transport properties of the thin film, as it may act as an additional scattering center andmore »subsequently lower the carrier mobility from ∼20–40 cm 2 V −1 s −1 of In 2 O 3 or a binary cation system ( i.e. , InZnO) to ∼1–10 cm 2 V −1 s −1 . This study investigates the structural, electrical, optoelectronic, and chemical properties of the ternary cation material system, InAlZnO (IAZO). The optimized carrier mobility (Hall Effect) of Al-doped InZnO is shown to remain as high as ∼25–45 cm 2 V −1 s −1 . Furthermore, Al incorporation in InZnO proves to enhance the amorphous phase stability under thermal stresses when compared to baseline InZnO films. Thin film transistors integrating optimized IAZO as the channel layer are shown to demonstrate promisingly high field effect mobilities (∼18–20 cm 2 V −1 s −1 ), as well as excellent drain current saturation and high drain current on/off ratios (>10 7 ). The high mobility and improved amorphous phase stability suggest strong potential for IAZO incorporation in the next generation of high performance and sustainable optoelectronic devices such as transparent displays.« less
  2. The traditional von Neumann architecture limits the increase in computing efficiency and results in massive power consumption in modern computers due to the separation of storage and processing units. The novel neuromorphic computation system, an in-memory computing architecture with low power consumption, is aimed to break the bottleneck and meet the needs of the next generation of artificial intelligence (AI) systems. Thus, it is urgent to find a memory technology to implement the neuromorphic computing nanosystem. Nowadays, the silicon-based flash memory dominates non-volatile memory market, however, it is facing challenging issues to achieve the requirements of future data storage devicemore »development due to the drawbacks, such as scaling issue, relatively slow operation speed, and high voltage for program/erase operations. The emerging resistive random-access memory (RRAM) has prompted extensive research as its simple two-terminal structure, including top electrode (TE) layer, bottom electrode (BE) layer, and an intermediate resistive switching (RS) layer. It can utilize a temporary and reversible dielectric breakdown to cause the RS phenomenon between the high resistance state (HRS) and the low resistance state (LRS). RRAM is expected to outperform conventional memory device with the advantages, notably its low-voltage operation, short programming time, great cyclic stability, and good scalability. Among the materials for RS layer, indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) has shown attractive prospects in abundance and high atomic diffusion property of oxygen atoms, transparency. Additionally, its electrical properties can be easily modulated by controlling the stoichiometric ratio of indium and gallium as well as oxygen potential in the sputter gas. Moreover, since the IGZO can be applied to both the thin-film transistor (TFT) channel and RS layer, it has a great potential for fully integrated transparent electronics application. In this work, we proposed amorphous transparent IGZO-based RRAMs and investigated switching behaviors of the memory cells prepared with different top electrodes. First, ITO was choosing to serve as both TE and BE to achieve high transmittance. A multi-target magnetron sputtering system was employed to deposit all three layers (TE, RS, BE layers) on glass substrate. I-V characteristics were evaluated by a semiconductor parameter analyzer, and the bipolar RS feature of our RRAM devices was demonstrated by typical butterfly curves. The optical transmission analysis was carried out via a UV-Vis spectrometer and the average transmittance was around 80% out of entire devices in the visible-light wavelength range, implying high transparency. We adjusted the oxygen partial pressure during the sputtering of IGZO to optimize the property because the oxygen vacancy concentration governs the RS performance. Electrode selection is crucial and can impact the performance of the whole device. Thus, Cu TE was chosen for our second type of device because the diffusion of Cu ions can be beneficial for the formation of the conductive filament (CF). A ~5 nm SiO 2 barrier layer was employed between TE and RS layers to confine the diffusion of Cu into the RS layer. At the same time, this SiO 2 inserting layer can provide an additional interfacial series resistance in the device to lower the off current, consequently, improve the on/off ratio and whole performance. Finally, an oxygen affinity metal Ti was selected as the TE for our third type of device because the concentration of the oxygen atoms can be shifted towards the Ti electrode, which provides an oxygengettering activity near the Ti metal. This process may in turn lead to the formation of a sub-stoichiometric region in the neighboring oxide that is believed to be the origin of better performance. In conclusion, the transparent amorphous IGZO-based RRAMs were established. To tune the property of RS layer, the sputtering conditions of RS were varied. To investigate the influence of TE selections on switching performance of RRAMs, we integrated a set of TE materials, and a barrier layer on IGZO-based RRAM and compared the switch characteristics. Our encouraging results clearly demonstrate that IGZO is a promising material in RRAM applications and breaking the bottleneck of current memory technologies.« less
  3. Two-dimensional (2D) materials with robust ferromagnetic behavior have attracted great interest because of their potential applications in next-generation nanoelectronic devices. Aside from graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides, Bi-based layered oxide materials are a group of prospective candidates due to their superior room-temperature multiferroic response. Here, an ultrathin Bi 3 Fe 2 Mn 2 O 10+ δ layered supercell (BFMO322 LS) structure was deposited on an LaAlO 3 (LAO) (001) substrate using pulsed laser deposition. Microstructural analysis suggests that a layered supercell (LS) structure consisting of two-layer-thick Bi–O slabs and two-layer-thick Mn/Fe–O octahedra slabs was formed on top of the pseudo-perovskitemore »interlayer (IL). A robust saturation magnetization value of 129 and 96 emu cm −3 is achieved in a 12.3 nm thick film in the in-plane (IP) and out-of-plane (OP) directions, respectively. The ferromagnetism, dielectric permittivity, and optical bandgap of the ultrathin BFMO films can be effectively tuned by thickness and morphology variation. In addition, the anisotropy of all ultrathin BFMO films switches from OP dominating to IP dominating as the thickness increases. This study demonstrates the ultrathin BFMO film with tunable multifunctionalities as a promising candidate for novel integrated spintronic devices.« less
  4. Abstract The manipulation of antiferromagnetic order in magnetoelectric Cr 2 O 3 using electric field has been of great interest due to its potential in low-power electronics. The substantial leakage and low dielectric breakdown observed in twinned Cr 2 O 3 thin films, however, hinders its development in energy efficient spintronics. To compensate, large film thicknesses (250 nm or greater) have been employed at the expense of device scalability. Recently, epitaxial V 2 O 3 thin film electrodes have been used to eliminate twin boundaries and significantly reduce the leakage of 300 nm thick single crystal films. Here we report the electricalmore »endurance and magnetic properties of thin (less than 100 nm) single crystal Cr 2 O 3 films on epitaxial V 2 O 3 buffered Al 2 O 3 (0001) single crystal substrates. The growth of Cr 2 O 3 on isostructural V 2 O 3 thin film electrodes helps eliminate the existence of twin domains in Cr 2 O 3 films, therefore significantly reducing leakage current and increasing dielectric breakdown. 60 nm thick Cr 2 O 3 films show bulk-like resistivity (~ 10 12 Ω cm) with a breakdown voltage in the range of 150–300 MV/m. Exchange bias measurements of 30 nm thick Cr 2 O 3 display a blocking temperature of ~ 285 K while room temperature optical second harmonic generation measurements possess the symmetry consistent with bulk magnetic order.« less
  5. A microscopic understanding of vortex pinning in type II superconductors began with the theoretical discovery of magnetic vortices by Abrikosov, which received the 2003 Nobel Prize in Physics [1, 2]. When type II superconductors are exposed to magnetic fields (H), the magnetic field enters as quantized vortices, each with a fundamental flux j0 = 2.07 × 10−11 T cm−2 , or 2.07 × 10−15 Wb. The vortex core size on the order of the superconducting coherence length can be very small, e.g. ∼1–2 nm for the cuprate family of high-temperature superconductors (HTSs). The vortices electrically interact with each other bymore »repelling, and act collectively together as a flux lattice that is affected by the intrinsic crystal lattice properties and microstructure defects. For superconducting power applications where applied magnetic fields are in the range of 0.1 T to >30 T, the areal number density of the vortices can reach incredibly high values. For example, for an applied magnetic field of 5 T, the vortex areal density is around 2.5 × 1011 cm−2 , which translates to inter-vortex spacing of about 20 nm (assuming a square lattice for vortices). Somewhat surprisingly, if the crystal lattice for type II superconductors, such as HTS cuprates [3] is nearly perfect without any defects to pin vortices, the vortices can move collectively and almost freely in an applied magnetic field due to Lorentz forces, which results in electrical resistance at a fairly low critical current density Jc(H, T) at an applied magnetic field (H) and temperature (T). In order to realize useful critical current densities in type II superconductors, imperfections and defects must be added to the crystal lattice to effectively pin vortices. The simplest example of this was achieved in the (Y, RE)Ba2Cu3O7 (where RE is rare earth elements) family by depositing thin films, in which high densities of dislocations and other growth defects are added into the film microstructure and dramatically increase the critical current density Jc(77 K, H//c-axis) > 106 A cm−2 compared to Jc (77 K) < 103 A cm−2 for single crystals [4–6]« less