Lytic Cell Death Mechanisms in Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Infected Macrophages: Roles of Pyroptosis and Necroptosis
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of viral bronchiolitis and pneumonia in infants and children worldwide. Inflammation induced by RSV infection is responsible for its hallmark manifestation of bronchiolitis and pneumonia. The cellular debris created through lytic cell death of infected cells is a potent initiator of this inflammation. Macrophages are known to play a pivotal role in the early innate immune and inflammatory response to viral pathogens. However, the lytic cell death mechanisms associated with RSV infection in macrophages remains unknown. Two distinct mechanisms involved in lytic cell death are pyroptosis and necroptosis. Our studies revealed that RSV induces lytic cell death in macrophages via both of these mechanisms, specifically through the ASC (Apoptosis-associated speck like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain)-NLRP3 (nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich-containing family, pyrin domain-containing-3) inflammasome activation of both caspase-1 dependent pyroptosis and receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 3 (RIPK3), as well as a mixed lineage kinase domain like pseudokinase (MLKL)-dependent necroptosis. In addition, we demonstrated an important role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during lytic cell death of RSV-infected macrophages.