First HETDEX Spectroscopic Determinations of Lyα and UV Luminosity Functions at z = 2–3: Bridging a Gap between Faint AGNs and Bright Galaxies
Abstract We present Ly α and ultraviolet (UV)-continuum luminosity functions (LFs) of galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at z = 2.0–3.5 determined by the untargeted optical spectroscopic survey of the Hobby–Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). We combine deep Subaru imaging with HETDEX spectra resulting in 11.4 deg 2 of fiber spectra sky coverage, obtaining 18,320 galaxies spectroscopically identified with Ly α emission, 2126 of which host type 1 AGNs showing broad (FWHM > 1000 km s −1 ) Ly α emission lines. We derive the Ly α (UV) LF over 2 orders of magnitude covering bright galaxies and AGNs in log L Ly α / [ erg s − 1 ] = 43.3 – 45.5 (−27 < M UV < −20) by the 1/ V max estimator. Our results reveal that the bright-end hump of the Ly α LF is composed of type 1 AGNs. In conjunction with previous spectroscopic results at the faint end, we measure a slope of the best-fit Schechter function to be α Sch = − 1.70 − 0.14 + 0.13 , which indicates that α Sch steepens from z = 2–3 toward high redshift. Our UV LF agrees well with previous AGN UV more »
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Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10333830
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal
Volume:
922
Issue:
2
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
167
ISSN:
0004-637X
We present the Lyαemission line luminosity function (LF) of the active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the first release of the Hobby–Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment Survey (HETDEX) AGN catalog. The AGN are selected either by emission line pairs characteristic of AGN or by a single broad emission line, free of any photometric preselections (magnitude/color/morphology). The sample consists of 2346 AGN spanning 1.88 <z< 3.53, covering an effective area of 30.61 deg2. Approximately 2.6% of the HETDEX AGN are not detected at >5σconfidence atr∼ 26 in the deepestr-band images we have searched. The Lyαline luminosity ranges from ∼1042.3to 1045.9erg s−1. Our LyαLF shows a turnover luminosity with opposite slopes on the bright end and the faint end: The space density is highest at$LLyα∗=1043.4$erg s−1. We explore the evolution of the AGN LF over a broader redshift range (0.8 <z< 3); constructing the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) LF with the 1450 Å monochromatic luminosity of the power-law component of the continuum (M1450) fromM1450∼ −18 to −27.5. We divide the sample into three redshift bins (z∼ 1.5, 2.1, and 2.6). In all three redshift bins, our UV LFs indicate that the space density of AGN is highest at themore »
2. ABSTRACT In large-scale hydrodynamical cosmological simulations, the fate of massive galaxies is mainly dictated by the modelling of feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The amount of energy released by AGN feedback is proportional to the mass that has been accreted on to the black holes (BHs), but the exact subgrid modelling of AGN feedback differs in all simulations. While modern simulations reliably produce populations of quiescent massive galaxies at z ≤ 2, it is also crucial to assess the similarities and differences of the responsible AGN populations. Here, we compare the AGN populations of the Illustris, TNG100, TNG300, Horizon-AGN, EAGLE, and SIMBA simulations. The AGN luminosity function (LF) varies significantly between simulations. Although in agreement with current observational constraints at z = 0, at higher redshift the agreement of the LFs deteriorates with most simulations producing too many AGNs of $L_{\rm x, 2\!-\!10 \, keV}\sim 10^{43\!-\!44}\, \rm erg\, s^{-1}$. AGN feedback in some simulations prevents the existence of any bright AGN with $L_{\rm x, 2\!-\!10 \, keV}\geqslant 10^{45}\rm \,erg\, s^{-1}$ (although this is sensitive to AGN variability), and leads to smaller fractions of AGN in massive galaxies than in the observations at z ≤ 2. We find that all themore »
Our understanding of reionization has advanced considerably over the past decade, with several results now demonstrating that the intergalactic medium transitioned from substantially neutral at z = 7 to largely reionized at z = 6. However, little remains known about the sizes of ionized bubbles at z ≳ 7 as well as the galaxy overdensities which drive their growth. Fortunately, rest-ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopic observations offer a pathway towards characterizing these ionized bubbles thanks to the resonant nature of Lyman-alpha photons. In a previous work, we presented Ly α detections from three closely separated Lyman-break galaxies at z ≃ 6.8, suggesting the presence of a large (R > 1 physical Mpc) ionized bubble in the 1.5 deg2 COSMOS field. Here, we present new deep Ly α spectra of 10 UV-bright ($\mathrm{\mathit{ M}}_{\mathrm{UV}}^{} \le -20.4$) z ≃ 6.6–6.9 galaxies in the surrounding area, enabling us to better characterize this potential ionized bubble. We confidently detect (S/N > 7) Ly α emission at z = 6.701–6.882 in nine of ten observed galaxies, revealing that the large-scale volume spanned by these sources (characteristic radius R = 3.2 physical Mpc) traces a strong galaxy overdensity (N/〈N〉 ≳ 3). Our data additionally confirm that the Lymore »
4. ABSTRACT We present an updated model of the cosmic ionizing background from the UV to the X-rays. Relative to our previous model, the new model provides a better match to a large number of up-to-date empirical constraints, including: (1) new galaxy and AGN luminosity functions; (2) stellar spectra including binary stars; (3) obscured and unobscured AGN; (4) a measurement of the non-ionizing UV background; (5) measurements of the intergalactic H i and He ii photoionization rates at z ∼ 0−6; (6) the local X-ray background; and (7) improved measurements of the intergalactic opacity. In this model, AGN dominate the H i ionizing background at z ≲ 3 and star-forming galaxies dominate it at higher redshifts. Combined with the steeply declining AGN luminosity function beyond z ∼ 2, the slow evolution of the H i ionization rate inferred from the high-redshift H i Ly α forest requires an escape fraction from star-forming galaxies that increases with redshift (a population-averaged escape fraction of $\approx 1{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ suffices to ionize the intergalactic medium at z = 3 when including the contribution from AGN). We provide effective photoionization and photoheating rates calibrated to match the Planck 2018 reionization optical depth and recent constraints from the He ii Ly α forestmore »