skip to main content

This content will become publicly available on February 28, 2023

Title: An unexpected new genus of panurgine bees (Hymenoptera, Andrenidae) from Europe discovered after phylogenomic analysis
Establishing a higher classification of bees based on morphology alone can fail to capture evolutionary relationships when morphological characters either vary very little between distantly related groups, or conversely vary greatly between closely related species. This problem is well represented in the subfamily Panurginae, for which a recent global revision based on phylogenomic data unexpectedly revealed that two Old World species previously placed in Camptopoeum Spinola and Flavipanurgus Warncke, are in fact most closely related to each other, and together form a sister group relationship to the remaining Flavipanurgus and Panurgus Panzer combined. To rectify this situation, we here establish an expanded phylogenomic data set of Old World Panurgini and re-assess generic and subgeneric concepts for the tribe. To solve the paraphyly of Camptopoeum and Flavipanurgus , we establish the new genus Halopanurgus gen. nov. containing the species H. baldocki (Wood & Cross), comb. nov. and H. fuzetus (Patiny), comb. nov. , both of which are restricted to coastal sands, saltmarshes, and inland saline lagoons in the extreme south of Portugal and south-west of Spain. Re-evaluation of four recently used subgenera in Panurgus strongly supports a simplified classification of two subgenera; Pachycephalopanurgus Patiny, stat. rev. including Micropanurgus Patiny syn. nov. more » , and Panurgus s. str. including Euryvalvus Patiny. Pachycephalopanurgus species seem to be oligoleges of Asteroideae (Asteraceae), whereas Panurgus s. str. may be oligoleges of Cichorieae (Asteraceae). Our findings reinforce the challenges of establishing a phylogenetically sound classification of Panurginae using morphology alone and illustrate that even in well-studied regions like Europe unrecognised genera can persist in underexplored corners of the continent. « less
Authors:
; ;
Award ID(s):
2127744
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10334367
Journal Name:
Journal of Hymenoptera Research
Volume:
89
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
183 to 210
ISSN:
1070-9428
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Camponotus and Colobopsis are widely distributed and species-rich genera in the ant tribe Camponotini. Molecular phylogenetic studies demonstrate that they are not sister taxa, but several lineages within each genus have converged to a remarkable degree, confounding the taxonomy of these ants. Based on multiple lines of evidence, including worker and male morphology, we demonstrate that: (1) three species of “Camponotus” belonging to the subgenus Myrmotemnus, including its type species, are in fact members of the genus Colobopsis ; (2) four species previously assigned to Colobopsis belong to the subgenus Myrmamblys of Camponotus ; and (3) three Nearctic taxa recentlymore »placed in Colobopsis are members of the genus Camponotus and closely related to Camponotus clarithorax . These taxonomic findings yield the following new or revived combinations: Colobopsis moeschi ( comb. nov. ), Colobopsis moeschi lygaea ( comb. nov. ), Colobopsis nutans ( comb. nov. ), Colobopsis nutans cleliae ( comb. nov. ), and Colobopsis reichenspergeri ( comb. nov. ); Camponotus apostemata ( comb. nov. ), Camponotus aurelianus ( comb. rev. ), Camponotus cavibregma ( comb. nov. ), Camponotus horrens ( comb. rev. ), Camponotus politae ( comb. rev. ), Camponotus trajanus ( comb. rev. ), and Camponotus yogi ( comb. rev. ). A further consequence is the following generic synonymy (senior synonym listed first): Colobopsis = Myrmotemnus syn. nov. , and Camponotus = Dolophra syn. rev. At the species level, we argue that Camponotus apostemata and Camponotus cavibregma are junior synonyms ( syn. nov. ) of Camponotus yogi , and Camponotus quercicola is a junior synonym ( syn. nov. ) of Ca. laevigatus . Taxonomic comments are also provided on some members of the Camponotus reticulatus group, with Camponotus adustus ( stat. nov. ) and Ca. leucodiscus ( stat. rev. ) being recognized as distinct species rather than subspecies of Ca. bellus . A male-based diagnosis of the Camponotini is provided, and differences between the males of Colobopsis and Camponotus are documented and illustrated for the first time. This study reveals new character systems of potential value to the systematics of these ants, including features of the male genitalia, and emphasizes the value of reciprocal illumination between phylogenomics and critical morphological analysis.« less
  2. Sosa-Calvo, Jeffrey (Ed.)
    Abstract The genus Cryptopone Emery contains 25 species of litter and soil ants, 5 of which occur in the Americas. Cryptopone gilva (Roger) occurs in the southeastern United States and cloud forests of Mesoamerica, exhibiting an uncommon biogeographic disjunction observed most often in plants. We used phylogenomic data from ultraconserved elements (UCEs), as well as mitogenomes and legacy markers, to investigate phylogenetic relationships, species boundaries, and divergence dates among New World Cryptopone. Species delimitation was conducted using a standard approach and then tested using model-based molecular methods (SNAPP, BPP, SODA, and bPTP). We found that Cryptopone as currently constituted ismore »polyphyletic, and that all the South American species belong to Wadeura Weber, a separate genus unrelated to Cryptopone. A single clade of true Cryptopone occurs in the Americas, restricted to North and Central America. This clade is composed of four species that originated ~4.2 million years ago. One species from the mountains of Guatemala is sister to the other three, favoring a vicariance hypothesis of diversification. The taxonomy of the New World Cryptopone and Wadeura is revised. Taxonomic changes are as follows: Wadeura Weber is resurrected, with new combinations W. guianensis Weber, W. holmgreni (Wheeler), and W. pauli (Fernandes & Delabie); C. guatemalensis (Forel) (rev. stat.) is raised to species and includes C. obsoleta (Menozzi) (syn. nov.). The following new species are described: Cryptopone gilvagrande, C. gilvatumida, and Wadeura holmgrenita. Cryptopone hartwigi Arnold is transferred to Fisheropone Schmidt and Shattuck (n. comb.). Cryptopone mirabilis (Mackay & Mackay 2010) is a junior synonym of Centromyrmex brachycola (Roger) (syn. nov.).« less
  3. Blapstinus Dejean is the most taxonomically challenging genus within Blapstinina Mulsant & Rey (Tenebrionidae: Opatrini). With over 120 species, it is widely distributed throughout the Americas, with representatives reaching Canada on the northern range edge, and Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay in the south. Traditionally, Blapstinus has been distinguished from other blapstinoid beetles via well-developed metathoracic wings and their lack of synapomorphies present in other genera; however, fused and tapering aedeagal parameres were recently introduced as a potential autapomorphy for the genus. This study used molecular data (nuclear ribosomal 28S, cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII), arginine kinase (ArgK), carbomyl-phosphate synthetase domainmore »of rudimentary (CAD), and wingless (wg)) to investigate the phylogenetic placement and taxonomic status of three Blapstinus species with distinct male genitalic morphology, i.e. Blapstinus tibialis Champion (USA), B. grandis Champion (Mexico, Nicaragua), and B. punctulatus Solier (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Uruguay). Analyses highlight the phylogenetic informativeness of the aedeagal morphology within the subtribe, and support an urgent need for taxonomic studies of South American taxa. Blapstinus tibialis and B. grandis were recovered as a specific lineage within Blapstinus that can be easily distinguished from remaining congeners by having tridentate parameres. A lectotype for B. grandis is designated to fix the taxonomic status of this species. Blapstinus punctulatus was recovered outside of its current genus which, along with aedeagal morphology, supports a change of status of the species. As a result, the following synonymy and combinations are introduced: Lodinus Mulsant and Rey stat. restit. (=Austrocaribius Marcuzzi syn. nov.), Lodinus araguae (Marcuzzi) comb. et stat. nov., L. punctulatus comb. nov., L. venezuelensis (Marcuzzi) comb. nov. Lectotypes for Lodinus nigroaeneus Mulsant and Rey, L. araguae, and L. punctulatus are designated to fix the taxonomic status of these species.« less
  4. The systematics of sitticine jumping spiders is reviewed, with a focus on the Palearctic and Nearctic regions, in order to revise their generic classification, clarify the species of one region (Canada), and study their chromosomes. A genome-wide molecular phylogeny of 23 sitticine species, using more than 700 loci from the arachnid Ultra-Conserved Element (UCE) probeset, confirms the Neotropical origins of sitticines, whose basal divergence separates the new subtribe Aillutticina (a group of five Neotropical genera) from the subtribe Sitticina (five genera of Eurasia and the Americas). The phylogeny shows that most Eurasian sitticines form a relatively recent and rapid radiation,more »which we unite into the genus Attulus Simon, 1868, consisting of the subgenera Sitticus Simon, 1901 (seven described species), Attulus (41 described species), and Sittilong Prószyński, 2017 (one species). Five species of Attulus occur natively in North America, presumably through dispersals back from the Eurasian radiation, but an additional three species were more recently introduced from Eurasia. Attus palustris Peckham & Peckham, 1883 is considered to be a full synonym of Euophrys floricola C. L. Koch, 1837 (not a distinct subspecies). Attus sylvestris Emerton, 1891 is removed from synonymy and recognized as a senior synonym of Sitticus magnus Chamberlin & Ivie, 1944. Thus, the five native Attulus in North America are Attulus floricola , A. sylvestris , A. cutleri , A. striatus , and A. finschi . The other sitticines of Canada and the U.S.A. are placed in separate genera, all of which arose from a Neotropical radiation including Jollas Simon, 1901 and Tomis F.O.Pickard-Cambridge, 1901: (1) Attinella Banks, 1905 ( A. dorsata , A. concolor , A. juniperi ), (2) Tomis ( T. welchi ), and (3) Sittisax Prószyński, 2017 ( S. ranieri ). All Neotropical and Caribbean “ Sitticus ” are transferred to either Jollas (12 species total) or Tomis (14 species). Attinella (three species) and Tomis are both removed from synonymy with Sitticus ; the synonymy of Sitticus cabellensis Prószyński, 1971 with Pseudattulus kratochvili Caporiacco, 1947 is restored; Pseudattulus Caporiacco, 1947 is synonymized with Tomis . Six generic names are newly synonymized with Attulus and one with Attinella . Two Neotropical species are described as new, Jollas cupreus sp. nov. and Tomis manabita sp. nov. Forty-six new combinations are established and three are restored. Three species synonymies are restored, one is new, and two are rejected. Across this diversity of species is a striking diversification of chromosome complements, with X-autosome fusions occurring at least four times to produce neo-Y sex chromosome systems (X 1 X 2 Y and X 1 X 2 X 3 Y), some of which ( Sittisax ranieri and S. saxicola ) are sufficiently derived as to no longer preserve the simple traces of ancestral X material. The correlated distribution of neo-Y and a base autosome number of 28 suggests that neo-Y origins occurred preferentially in lineages with the presence of an extra pair of autosomes.« less
  5. Three new Neotropical athysanine (Deltocephalinae) leafhopper genera, Spaltumtettix Pinedo-Escatel & Dietrich gen. nov., Pseudonapo Pinedo-Escatel & Dietrich gen. nov., and Goiattus Pinedo-Escatel gen. nov., and 4 new species, S. coloradus Pinedo-Escatel & Dietrich sp. nov. (Peru), P. waorani Pinedo-Escatel & Dietrich sp. nov. (Ecuador), P. huanucensis Pinedo-Escatel & Dietrich sp. nov. (Peru), and G. reyesi Pinedo-Escatel sp. nov. (Brazil), are described and illustrated. In addition, the genera Zabrosa Oman, Napo Linnavuori & DeLong, Pseudalaca Linnavuori and Brazosa Oman are revised and redescribed. Six new species are described in Brazosa: B. campinacu Pinedo-Escatel & Dietrich sp. nov. (Brazil), B. espatula Pinedo-Escatelmore »& Dietrich sp. nov. (Brazil), B. encrustada Pinedo-Escatel & Dietrich sp. nov. (Brazil), B. mildredireanae Pinedo-Escatel sp. nov. (Peru), B. negra Pinedo-Escatel & Dietrich sp. nov. (Peru and Bolivia) and B. beni Pinedo-Escatel & Dietrich sp. nov. (Bolivia). Brazosa caesarea Linnavuori & Heller comb. nov. is transferred to Spaltumtettix. The South American species Z. aquareza Linnavuori & DeLong syn. nov. is proposed as junior synonym of Z. unicampi Menezes. Keys to species of each genus are provided. Unusual aspects of the morphology of these genera are discussed and a comparative table is provided.« less