Occupations, like many other social systems, are hierarchical. They evolve with other elements within the work ecosystem including technology and skills. This paper investigates the relationships among these elements using an approach that combines network theory and modular systems theory. A new method of using work related data to build occupation networks and theorize occupation evolution is proposed. Using this technique, structural properties of occupations are discovered by way of community detection on a knowledge network built from labor statistics, based on more than 900 occupations and 18,000 tasks. The occupation networks are compared across the work ecosystem as well as over time to understand the interdependencies between task components and the coevolution of occupation, tasks, technology, and skills. In addition, a set of conjectures are articulated based on the observations made from occupation structure comparison and change over time.
The Coevolution of Tasks and Technologies
As work changes, so does technology. The two coevolve as part of a work ecosystem. This paper suggests a way of plotting this coevolution by comparing the embeddings - high dimensional vector representations - of textual descriptions of tasks, occupations and technologies. Tight coupling between tasks and technologies - measured by the distances between vectors - are shown to be associated with high task importance. Moreover, tasks that are more prototypical in an occupation are more important. These conclusions were reached through an analysis of the 2020 data release of The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) from the U.S. Department of Labor on 967 occupations and 19,533 tasks. One occupation, journalism, is analyzed in depth, and conjectures are formed related to the ways technologies and tasks evolve through both design and exaptation.
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Academy of Management Annual Meeting
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
More Like this
Longitudinal associations between parent degree/occupation, parent support, and adolescent motivational beliefs in STEMIntroduction The United States struggles with racial/ethnic disparities in STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) degrees and occupations. According to situated expectancy-value theory, the experience and knowledge parents gain through STEM degrees and occupations shape the STEM support they provide and relatedly their adolescents' STEM motivational beliefs. Methods We analyzed data from the High School Longitudinal Study (N = 14,000; 50% female; Mage = 14 years old at 9th grade), which is a recent U.S. data set that surveyed a nationally representative sample of adolescents. Results and Conclusions Results showed that parent STEM support in 9th grade and adolescent STEM motivational beliefs in 11th grade were lower in families where parents did not have a STEM degree/occupation than in families where at least one parent had a STEM degree/occupation. Our within-group analyses suggested that parents' STEM support was generally positively related to adolescents' STEM motivational beliefs among families where parents did not have a STEM degree/occupation for all racial/ethnic groups except Black adolescents. However, these relations were not significant among adolescents who had a parent STEM degree/occupation. Furthermore, although Asian and White adolescents' parents were more likely to hold a STEM degree/occupation than Latina/o and Black adolescents' parents, the associations between parent STEM support andmore »
Understanding Spatiotemporal Human Mobility Patterns for Malaria Control Using a Multiagent Mobility Simulation ModelAbstract Background More details about human movement patterns are needed to evaluate relationships between daily travel and malaria risk at finer scales. A multiagent mobility simulation model was built to simulate the movements of villagers between home and their workplaces in 2 townships in Myanmar. Methods An agent-based model (ABM) was built to simulate daily travel to and from work based on responses to a travel survey. Key elements for the ABM were land cover, travel time, travel mode, occupation, malaria prevalence, and a detailed road network. Most visited network segments for different occupations and for malaria-positive cases were extracted and compared. Data from a separate survey were used to validate the simulation. Results Mobility characteristics for different occupation groups showed that while certain patterns were shared among some groups, there were also patterns that were unique to an occupation group. Forest workers were estimated to be the most mobile occupation group, and also had the highest potential malaria exposure associated with their daily travel in Ann Township. In Singu Township, forest workers were not the most mobile group; however, they were estimated to visit regions that had higher prevalence of malaria infection over other occupation groups. Conclusions Using anmore »
Training Regimes and Skill Formation in France and Germany An Analysis of Change Between 1970 and 2010Abstract How do educational systems prepare workers for the labor market? Stratification research has often made a distinction between two ideal-types: “qualificational spaces,” exemplified by Germany with a focus on vocational education, and “organizational spaces,” exemplified by France with a focus on general education. However, most studies that investigated this distinction did so by focusing only on the size of the vocational sector, not on whether graduates with a vocational degree actually link strongly to the labor market. Moreover, they often studied male workers only, ignoring potential gender differences in how school-to-work linkages are established. In this paper, we map the change in education–occupation linkage in France and Germany between 1970 and 2010 using an approach that can distinguish between changes in rates and changes in the structure of school-to-work linkages. Surprisingly, we find that the German vocational system in 1970 was not, on average, substantially more efficient in allocating graduates to specific occupations than the French system. This finding is a major departure from earlier results, and it shows that the differences between 1970’s France and Germany, on which the qualificational-organizational distinction is based, are smaller than previously assumed. Partly, this is due to the fact that the femalemore »
One-third of children globally have blood lead levels (BLLs) exceeding the (former) US CDC reference value of 5 μg/dL; this value may be as high as one-half for children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Lead exposure occurs through a variety of routes (e.g., water, dust, air), and in LMICs specifically, informal economies (e.g., battery recycling) can drive lead exposures due, in part, to absent regulation. Previous work by our team identified a ubiquitous source of lead (Pb), in the form of Pb-containing components used in manually operated pumps, in Toamasina, Madagascar. Characterization of BLLs of children exposed to this drinking water, and identification of additional exposure routes were needed. BLLs were measured for 362 children (aged 6 months to 6 years) in parallel with surveying to assess 14 risk factors related to demographics/socioeconomics, diet, use of pitcher pumps, and parental occupations. BLL data were also compared against a recent meta-review of BLLs for LMICs. Median childhood BLL (7.1 μg/dL) was consistent with those of other Sub-Saharan African LMICs (6.8 μg/dL) and generally higher than LMICs in other continents. Risk factors significantly associated (p < 0.05, univariate logistic regression) with elevated BLL (at ≥ 5 μg/dL) included male gender, livingmore »