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This paper considers the interplay between semidefinite programming, matrix rank, and graph coloring. Karger, Motwani, and Sudan [10] give a vector program for which a coloring of the graph can be encoded as a semidefinite matrix of low rank. By complementary slackness conditions of semidefinite programming, if an optimal dual solution has sufficiently high rank, any optimal primal solution must have low rank. We attempt to characterize graphs for which we can show that the corresponding dual optimal solution must have sufficiently high rank. In the case of the original Karger, Motwani, and Sudan vector program, we show that any graph which is a k-tree has sufficiently high dual rank, and we can extract the coloring from the corresponding low-rank primal solution. We can also show that if the graph is not uniquely colorable, then no sufficiently high rank dual optimal solution can exist. This allows us to completely characterize the planar graphs for which dual optimal solutions have sufficiently high dual rank, since it is known that the uniquely colorable planar graphs are precisely the planar 3-trees.
We then modify the semidefinite program to have an objective function with costs, and explore when we can create a cost function whose optimal dual solution has sufficiently high rank. We show that it is always possible to construct such a cost function given the graph coloring. The construction of the cost function gives rise to a heuristic for graph coloring which we show works well in the case of planar graphs; we enumerated all maximal planar graphs with a K4 of up to 14 vertices, and the heuristics successfully colored 99.75% of them.
Our research was motivated by the Colin de Verdière graph invariant [5] (and a corresponding conjecture of Colin de Verdière), in which matrices that have some similarities to the dual feasible matrices must have high rank in the case that graphs are of a certain type; for instance, planar graphs have rank that would imply the 4-colorability of the primal solution. We explore the connection between the conjecture and the rank of the dual solutions. more »« less

Hamaker, Zachary; Vatter, Vincent(
, The Australasian journal of combinatorics)

Albert, Michael; Billington, Elizabeth J
(Ed.)

In the first partial result toward Steinberg’s now-disproved three coloring conjecture, Abbott and Zhou used a counting argument to show that every planar graph without cycles of lengths 4 through 11 is 3-colorable. Implicit in their proof is a fact about plane graphs: in any plane graph of minimum degree 3, if no two triangles share an edge, then triangles make up strictly fewer than 2/3 of the faces. We show how this result, combined with Kostochka and Yancey’s resolution of Ore’s conjecture for k = 4, implies that every planar graph without cycles of lengths 4 through 8 is 3-colorable.

It was conjectured by Hajós that graphs containing no ‐subdivision are 4‐colorable. Previous results show that any possible minimum counterexample to Hajós' conjecture, called Hajós graph, is 4‐connected but not 5‐connected. In this paper, we show that if a Hajós graph admits a 4‐cut or 5‐cut with a planar side then the planar side must be small or contains a special wheel. This is a step in our effort to reduce Hajós' conjecture to the Four Color Theorem.

Angelidakis, H; Awasthi, P.; Blum, A.; Chatziafratis, V.; Dan, C.(
, 27th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2019))

We study the classic Maximum Independent Set problem under the notion of stability introduced by Bilu and Linial (2010): a weighted instance of Independent Set is γ-stable if it has a unique optimal solution that remains the unique optimal solution under multiplicative perturbations of the weights by a factor of at most γ ≥ 1. The goal then is to efficiently recover this “pronounced” optimal solution exactly. In this work, we solve stable instances of Independent Set on several classes of graphs: we improve upon previous results by solving \tilde{O}(∆/sqrt(log ∆))-stable instances on graphs of maximum degree ∆, (k − 1)-stable instances on k-colorable graphs and (1 + ε)-stable instances on planar graphs (for any fixed ε > 0), using both combinatorial techniques as well as LPs and the Sherali-Adams hierarchy.
For general graphs, we give an algorithm for (εn)-stable instances, for any fixed ε > 0, and lower bounds based on the planted clique conjecture. As a by-product of our techniques, we give algorithms as well as lower bounds for stable instances of Node Multiway Cut (a generalization of Edge Multiway Cut), by exploiting its connections to Vertex Cover. Furthermore, we prove a general structural result showing that the integrality gap of convex relaxations of several maximization problems reduces dramatically on stable instances.
Moreover, we initiate the study of certified algorithms for Independent Set. The notion of a γ-certified algorithm was introduced very recently by Makarychev and Makarychev (2018) and it is a class of γ-approximation algorithms that satisfy one crucial property: the solution returned is optimal for a perturbation of the original instance, where perturbations are again multiplicative up to a factor of γ ≥ 1 (hence, such algorithms not only solve γ-stable instances optimally, but also have guarantees even on unstable instances). Here, we obtain ∆-certified algorithms for Independent Set on graphs of maximum degree ∆, and (1 + ε)-certified algorithms on planar graphs. Finally, we analyze the algorithm of Berman and Fürer (1994) and prove that it is a ((∆+1)/3 + ε)-certified algorithm for Independent Set on graphs of maximum degree ∆ where all weights are equal to 1.

Abstract Recently, Dvořák, Norin, and Postle introduced flexibility as an extension of list coloring on graphs (J Graph Theory 92(3):191–206, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1002/jgt.22447 ). In this new setting, each vertex v in some subset of V ( G ) has a request for a certain color r ( v ) in its list of colors L ( v ). The goal is to find an L coloring satisfying many, but not necessarily all, of the requests. The main studied question is whether there exists a universal constant $$\varepsilon >0$$ ε > 0 such that any graph G in some graph class $$\mathscr {C}$$ C satisfies at least $$\varepsilon$$ ε proportion of the requests. More formally, for $$k > 0$$ k > 0 the goal is to prove that for any graph $$G \in \mathscr {C}$$ G ∈ C on vertex set V , with any list assignment L of size k for each vertex, and for every $$R \subseteq V$$ R ⊆ V and a request vector $$(r(v): v\in R, ~r(v) \in L(v))$$ ( r ( v ) : v ∈ R , r ( v ) ∈ L ( v ) ) , there exists an L -coloring of G satisfying at least $$\varepsilon |R|$$ ε | R | requests. If this is true, then $$\mathscr {C}$$ C is called $$\varepsilon$$ ε - flexible for lists of size k . Choi, Clemen, Ferrara, Horn, Ma, and Masařík (Discrete Appl Math 306:20–132, 2022, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dam.2021.09.021 ) introduced the notion of weak flexibility , where $$R = V$$ R = V . We further develop this direction by introducing a tool to handle weak flexibility. We demonstrate this new tool by showing that for every positive integer b there exists $$\varepsilon (b)>0$$ ε ( b ) > 0 so that the class of planar graphs without $$K_4, C_5 , C_6 , C_7, B_b$$ K 4 , C 5 , C 6 , C 7 , B b is weakly $$\varepsilon (b)$$ ε ( b ) -flexible for lists of size 4 (here $$K_n$$ K n , $$C_n$$ C n and $$B_n$$ B n are the complete graph, a cycle, and a book on n vertices, respectively). We also show that the class of planar graphs without $$K_4, C_5 , C_6 , C_7, B_5$$ K 4 , C 5 , C 6 , C 7 , B 5 is $$\varepsilon$$ ε -flexible for lists of size 4. The results are tight as these graph classes are not even 3-colorable.

Bodur, Merve; Luedtke, James R.(
, Mathematical Programming)

Multi-stage stochastic linear programs (MSLPs) are notoriously hard to solve in general. Linear decision rules (LDRs) yield an approximation of an MSLP by restricting the decisions at each stage to be an affine function of the observed uncertain parameters. Finding an optimal LDR is a static optimization problem that provides an upper bound on the optimal value of the MSLP, and, under certain assumptions, can be formulated as an explicit linear program. Similarly, as proposed by Kuhn et al. (Math Program 130(1):177–209, 2011) a lower bound for an MSLP can be obtained by restricting decisions in the dual of the MSLP to follow an LDR. We propose a new approximation approach for MSLPs, two-stage LDRs. The idea is to require only the state variables in an MSLP to follow an LDR, which is sufficient to obtain an approximation of an MSLP that is a two-stage stochastic linear program (2SLP). We similarly propose to apply LDR only to a subset of the variables in the dual of the MSLP, which yields a 2SLP approximation of the dual that provides a lower bound on the optimal value of the MSLP. Although solving the corresponding 2SLP approximations exactly is intractable in general, we investigate how approximate solution approaches that have been developed for solving 2SLP can be applied to solve these approximation problems, and derive statistical upper and lower bounds on the optimal value of the MSLP. In addition to potentially yielding better policies and bounds, this approach requires many fewer assumptions than are required to obtain an explicit reformulation when using the standard static LDR approach. A computational study on two example problems demonstrates that using a two-stage LDR can yield significantly better primal policies and modestly better dual policies than using policies based on a static LDR.

Mirka, Renee, Smedira, Devin, and Williamson, David P. Graph coloring and semidefinite rank. Retrieved from https://par.nsf.gov/biblio/10336449. Lecture notes in computer science 13265. Web. doi:10.1007/978-3-031-06901-7_29.

Mirka, Renee, Smedira, Devin, & Williamson, David P. Graph coloring and semidefinite rank. Lecture notes in computer science, 13265 (). Retrieved from https://par.nsf.gov/biblio/10336449. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-06901-7_29

@article{osti_10336449,
place = {Country unknown/Code not available},
title = {Graph coloring and semidefinite rank},
url = {https://par.nsf.gov/biblio/10336449},
DOI = {10.1007/978-3-031-06901-7_29},
abstractNote = {This paper considers the interplay between semidefinite programming, matrix rank, and graph coloring. Karger, Motwani, and Sudan [10] give a vector program for which a coloring of the graph can be encoded as a semidefinite matrix of low rank. By complementary slackness conditions of semidefinite programming, if an optimal dual solution has sufficiently high rank, any optimal primal solution must have low rank. We attempt to characterize graphs for which we can show that the corresponding dual optimal solution must have sufficiently high rank. In the case of the original Karger, Motwani, and Sudan vector program, we show that any graph which is a k-tree has sufficiently high dual rank, and we can extract the coloring from the corresponding low-rank primal solution. We can also show that if the graph is not uniquely colorable, then no sufficiently high rank dual optimal solution can exist. This allows us to completely characterize the planar graphs for which dual optimal solutions have sufficiently high dual rank, since it is known that the uniquely colorable planar graphs are precisely the planar 3-trees. We then modify the semidefinite program to have an objective function with costs, and explore when we can create a cost function whose optimal dual solution has sufficiently high rank. We show that it is always possible to construct such a cost function given the graph coloring. The construction of the cost function gives rise to a heuristic for graph coloring which we show works well in the case of planar graphs; we enumerated all maximal planar graphs with a K4 of up to 14 vertices, and the heuristics successfully colored 99.75% of them. Our research was motivated by the Colin de Verdière graph invariant [5] (and a corresponding conjecture of Colin de Verdière), in which matrices that have some similarities to the dual feasible matrices must have high rank in the case that graphs are of a certain type; for instance, planar graphs have rank that would imply the 4-colorability of the primal solution. We explore the connection between the conjecture and the rank of the dual solutions.},
journal = {Lecture notes in computer science},
volume = {13265},
author = {Mirka, Renee and Smedira, Devin and Williamson, David P.},
editor = {Aardal, Karen and Sanità, Laura}
}

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