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Title: Characterization of Ag/AgCl Dry Electrodes for Wearable Electrophysiological Sensing
With the rising need for on-body biometric sensing, the development of wearable electrophysiological sensors has been faster than ever. Surface electrodes placed on the skin need to be robust in order to measure biopotentials from the body reliably and comfortable for extended wearability. The electrical stability of nonpolarizable silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) and its low-cost, commercial production have made these electrodes ubiquitous health sensors in the clinical environment, where wet gels and long wires are accommodated by patient immobility. However, smaller, dry electrodes with wireless acquisition are essential for truly wearable, continuous health sensing. Currently, techniques for the robust fabrication of custom Ag/AgCl electrodes are lacking. Here, we present three methods for the fabrication of Ag/AgCl electrodes: oxidizing Ag in a chlorine solution, electroplating Ag, and curing Ag/AgCl ink. Each of these methods is then used to create three different electrode shapes for wearable application. Bench-top and on-body evaluation of the electrode techniques was achieved by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), calculation of variance in electrocardiogram (ECG) measurements, and analysis of auditory steady-state response (ASSR) measurement. Microstructures produced on the electrode by each fabrication technique were also investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The custom Ag/AgCl electrodes more » were found to be efficient in comparison with standard, commercial Ag/AgCl wet electrodes across all three of our presented techniques, with Ag/AgCl ink shown to be the better out of the three in bench-top and biometric recordings. « less
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Award ID(s):
1719130 1935860
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Frontiers in Electronics
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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