skip to main content

This content will become publicly available on January 1, 2023

Title: Synthesis of layered vs planar Mo 2 C: role of Mo diffusion
Abstract Chemical vapor deposition growth of metal carbides is of great interest as this method provides large area growth of MXenes. This growth is mainly done using a melted diffusion based process; however, different morphologies in growth process is not well understood. In this work, we report deterministic synthesis of layered (non-uniform c -axis growth) and planar (uniform c -axis growth) of molybdenum carbide (Mo 2 C) using a diffusion-mediated growth. Mo-diffusion limited growth mechanism is proposed where the competition between Mo and C adatoms determines the morphology of grown crystals. Difference in thickness of catalyst at the edge and center lead to enhanced Mo diffusion which plays a vital role in determining the structure of Mo 2 C. The layered structures exhibit an expansion in the lattice confirmed by the presence of strain. Density functional theory shows consistent presence of strain which is dependent upon Mo diffusion during growth. This work demonstrates the importance of precise control of diffusion through the catalyst in determining the structure of Mo 2 C and contributes to broader understanding of metal diffusion in growth of MXenes.
Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
1929356
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10338518
Journal Name:
2D Materials
Volume:
9
Issue:
1
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
015039
ISSN:
2053-1583
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Two-dimensional graphene-like materials, namely MXenes, have been proposed as potential materials for various applications. In this work, the reactivity and selectivity of four MXenes ( i.e. M 2 C (M = Ti, V, Nb, Mo)) and their oxygen-functionalized forms ( i.e. O-MXenes or M 2 CO 2 ) toward gas molecules were investigated by using the plane wave-based Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. Small gas molecules, which are commonly found in flue gas streams, are considered herein. Our results demonstrated that MXenes are very reactive. Chemisorption is a predominant process for gas adsorption on MXenes. Simultaneously dissociative adsorption can be observed in most cases. The high reactivity of their non-functionalized surface is attractive for catalytic applications. In contrast, their reactivity is reduced, but the selectivity is improved upon oxygen functionalization. Mo 2 CO 2 and V 2 CO 2 present good selectivity toward NO molecules, while Nb 2 CO 2 and Ti 2 CO 2 show good selectivity toward NH 3 . The electronic charge properties explain the nature of the substrates and also interactions between them and the adsorbed gases. Our results indicated that O-MXenes are potential materials for gas-separation/capture, -storage, -sensing, etc. Furthermore, their structural stability and SOmore »2 -tolerant nature are attractive properties for using them in a wide range of applications. Our finding provides good information to narrow down the choices of materials to be tested in future experimental work.« less
  2. Realization of wafer-scale single-crystal films of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) such as WS2 requires epitaxial growth and coalescence of oriented domains to form a continuous monolayer. The domains must be oriented in the same crystallographic direction on the substrate to inhibit the formation of inversion domain boundaries (IDBs), which are a common feature of layered chalcogenides. Here we demonstrate fully coalesced unidirectional WS2 monolayers on 2 in. diameter c-plane sapphire by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition using a multistep growth process to achieve epitaxial WS2 monolayers with low in-plane rotational twist (0.09°). Transmission electron microscopy analysis reveals that the WS2 monolayers are largely free of IDBs but instead have translational boundaries that arise when WS2 domains with slightly offset lattices merge together. By regulating the monolayer growth rate, the density of translational boundaries and bilayer coverage were significantly reduced. The unidirectional orientation of domains is attributed to the presence of steps on the sapphire surface coupled with growth conditions that promote surface diffusion, lateral domain growth, and coalescence while preserving the aligned domain structure. The transferred WS2 monolayers show neutral and charged exciton emission at 80 K with negligible defect-related luminescence. Back-gated WS2 field effect transistors exhibited an ION/OFF of ∼107more »and mobility of 16 cm2/(V s). The results demonstrate the potential of achieving wafer-scale TMD monolayers free of inversion domains with properties approaching those of exfoliated flakes.« less
  3. MXenes are a rapidly growing class of 2D transition metal carbides and nitrides, finding applications in fields ranging from energy storage to electromagnetic interference shielding and transparent conductive coatings. However, while more than 20 carbide MXenes have already been synthesized, Ti 4 N 3 and Ti 2 N are the only nitride MXenes reported so far. Here by ammoniation of Mo 2 CT x and V 2 CT x MXenes at 600 °C, we report on their transformation to 2D metal nitrides. Carbon atoms in the precursor MXenes are replaced with N atoms, resulting from the decomposition of ammonia molecules. The crystal structures of the resulting Mo 2 N and V 2 N were determined with transmission electron microscopy and X-ray pair distribution function analysis. Our results indicate that Mo 2 N retains the MXene structure and V 2 C transforms to a mixed layered structure of trigonal V 2 N and cubic VN. Temperature-dependent resistivity measurements of the nitrides reveal that they exhibit metallic conductivity, as opposed to semiconductor-like behavior of their parent carbides. As important, room-temperature electrical conductivity values of Mo 2 N and V 2 N are three and one order of magnitude larger than those ofmore »the Mo 2 CT x and V 2 CT x precursors, respectively. This study shows how gas treatment synthesis such as ammoniation can transform carbide MXenes into 2D nitrides with higher electrical conductivities and metallic behavior, opening a new avenue in 2D materials synthesis.« less
  4. We introduce an intermediate-temperature (350 °C) dry molten sodium hydroxide-mediated binder-free electrodeposition process to grow the previously electrochemically inaccessible air- and moisture-sensitive layered sodium transition metal oxides, NaxMO2(M = Co, Mn, Ni, Fe), in both thin and thick film form, compounds which are conventionally synthesized in powder form by solid-state reactions at temperatures ≥700 °C. As a key motivation for this work, several of these oxides are of interest as cathode materials for emerging sodium-ion–based electrochemical energy storage systems. Despite the low synthesis temperature and short reaction times, our electrodeposited oxides retain the key structural and electrochemical performance observed in high-temperature bulk synthesized materials. We demonstrate that tens of micrometers thick >75% dense NaxCoO2and NaxMnO2can be deposited in under 1 h. When used as cathodes for sodium-ion batteries, these materials exhibit near theoretical gravimetric capacities, chemical diffusion coefficients of Na+ions (∼10−12cm2⋅s−1), and high reversible areal capacities in the range ∼0.25 to 0.76 mA⋅h⋅cm−2, values significantly higher than those reported for binder-free sodium cathodes deposited by other techniques. The method described here resolves longstanding intrinsic challenges associated with traditional aqueous solution-based electrodeposition of ceramic oxides and opens a general solution chemistry approach for electrochemical processing of hitherto unexplored air- and moisture-sensitivemore »high valent multinary structures with extended frameworks.

    « less
  5. By means of density functional theory (DFT) computations, we explored the potential of carbon- and nitrogen-doped Mo 2 P (CMP and NMP) layered materials as the representative of transition metal phosphides (TMPs) for the development of lithium-ion battery (LIB) anode materials, paying special attention to the synergistic effects of the dopants. Both CMP and NMP have exceptional stabilities and excellent electronic conductivity, and a high theoretical maximum storage capacity of ∼ 486 mA h g −1 . Li-ion diffusion barriers on the two-dimensional (2D) CMP and NMP surfaces are extremely low (∼0.036 eV), and it is expected that on these 2D layers Li can diffuse 10 4 times faster than that on MoS 2 and graphene at room temperature, and both monolayers have relatively low average open-circuit voltage (0.38 and 0.4 eV). All these exceptional properties make CMP and NMP monolayers as promising candidates for high-performance LIB anode materials, which also demonstrates that simple doping is an effective strategy to enhance the performance of anode materials in rechargeable batteries.