skip to main content

Attention:

The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 11:00 PM ET on Thursday, May 23 until 2:00 AM ET on Friday, May 24 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.


Title: ALMA Discovery of a Disk around the Planetary-mass Companion SR 12 c
Abstract We report an Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array 0.88 mm (Band 7) continuum detection of the accretion disk around SR 12 c, an ∼11 M Jup planetary-mass companion (PMC) orbiting its host binary at 980 au. This is the first submillimeter detection of a circumplanetary disk around a wide PMC. The disk has a flux density of 127 ± 14 μ Jy and is not resolved by the ∼0.″1 beam, so the dust disk radius is likely less than 5 au and can be much smaller if the dust continuum is optically thick. If, however, the dust emission is optically thin, then the SR 12 c disk has a comparable dust mass to the circumplanetary disk around PDS 70 c but is about five times lower than that of the ∼12 M Jup free-floating OTS 44. This suggests that disks around bound and unbound planetary-mass objects can span a wide range of masses. The gas mass estimated with an accretion rate of 10 −11 M ☉ yr −1 implies a gas-to-dust ratio higher than 100. If cloud absorption is not significant, a nondetection of 12 CO(3–2) implies a compact gas disk around SR 12 c. Future sensitive observations may detect more PMC disks at 0.88 mm flux densities of ≲100 μ Jy.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
1811290 1745406
NSF-PAR ID:
10339654
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal Letters
Volume:
930
Issue:
1
ISSN:
2041-8205
Page Range / eLocation ID:
L3
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. We present high-resolution millimeter continuum ALMA observations of the disks around the T Tauri stars LkCa 15 and 2MASS J16100501-2132318 (hereafter, J1610). These transition disks host dust-depleted inner regions, which have possibly been carved by massive planets, and they are of prime interest to the study of the imprints of planet-disk interactions. While at moderate angular resolution, they appear as a broad ring surrounding a cavity, the continuum emission resolves into multiple rings at a resolution of ~60 × 40 mas (~7.5 au for LkCa 15, ~6 au for J1610) and ~7 μ Jy beam −1 rms at 1.3 mm. In addition to a broad extended component, LkCa 15 and J1610 host three and two narrow rings, respectively, with two bright rings in LkCa 15 being radially resolved. LkCa 15 possibly hosts another faint ring close to the outer edge of the mm emission. The rings look marginally optically thick, with peak optical depths of ~0.5 (neglecting scattering), in agreement with high angular resolution observations of full disks. We performed hydrodynamical simulations with an embedded, sub-Jovian-mass planet and show that the observed multi-ringed substructure can be qualitatively explained as the outcome of the planet-disk interaction. We note, however, that the choice of the disk cooling timescale alone can significantly impact the resulting gas and dust distributions around the planet, leading to different numbers of rings and gaps and different spacings between them. We propose that the massive outer disk regions of transition disks are favorable places for planetesimals, and possibly second-generation planet formation of objects with a lower mass than the planets carving the inner cavity (typically few M Jup ), and that the annular substructures observed in LkCa 15 and J1610 may be indicative of planetary core formation within dust-rich pressure traps. Current observations are compatible with other mechanisms contributing to the origin of the observed substructures, in particular with regard to narrow rings generated (or facilitated) at the edge of the CO and N 2 snowlines. 
    more » « less
  2. Abstract We report the discovery of a circumplanetary disk (CPD) candidate embedded in the circumstellar disk of the T Tauri star AS 209 at a radial distance of about 200 au (on-sky separation of 1.″4 from the star at a position angle of 161°), isolated via 13 CO J = 2−1 emission. This is the first instance of CPD detection via gaseous emission capable of tracing the overall CPD mass. The CPD is spatially unresolved with a 117 × 82 mas beam and manifests as a point source in 13 CO, indicating that its diameter is ≲14 au. The CPD is embedded within an annular gap in the circumstellar disk previously identified using 12 CO and near-infrared scattered-light observations and is associated with localized velocity perturbations in 12 CO. The coincidence of these features suggests that they have a common origin: an embedded giant planet. We use the 13 CO intensity to constrain the CPD gas temperature and mass. We find that the CPD temperature is ≳35 K, higher than the circumstellar disk temperature at the radial location of the CPD, 22 K, suggesting that heating sources localized to the CPD must be present. The CPD gas mass is ≳0.095 M Jup ≃ 30 M ⊕ adopting a standard 13 CO abundance. From the nondetection of millimeter continuum emission at the location of the CPD (3 σ flux density ≲26.4 μ Jy), we infer that the CPD dust mass is ≲0.027 M ⊕ ≃ 2.2 lunar masses, indicating a low dust-to-gas mass ratio of ≲9 × 10 −4 . We discuss the formation mechanism of the CPD-hosting giant planet on a wide orbit in the framework of gravitational instability and pebble accretion. 
    more » « less
  3. Abstract Multiwavelength high-resolution imaging of protoplanetary disks has revealed the presence of multiple, varied substructures in their dust and gas components, which might be signposts of young, forming planetary systems. AB Aurigae bears an emblematic (pre)transitional disk showing spiral structures observed in the inner cavity of the disk in both the submillimeter (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA); 1.3 mm, 12 CO) and near-infrared (Spectro-polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet Research; 1.5–2.5 μ m) wavelengths, which have been claimed to arise from dynamical interactions with a massive companion. In this work, we present new deep K s (2.16 μ m) and L ′ (3.7 μ m) band images of AB Aurigae obtained with the L/M-band Infrared Camera on the Large Binocular Telescope, aimed for the detection of both planetary companions and extended disk structures. No point source is recovered, in particular at the outer regions of the disk, where a putative candidate ( ρ = 0.″681, PA = 7.°6) had been previously claimed. The nature of a second innermost planet candidate ( ρ = 0.″16, PA = 203.°9) cannot be investigated by the new data. We are able to derive 5 σ detection limits in both magnitude and mass for the system, going from 14 M Jup at 0.″3 (49 au) down to 3–4 M Jup at 0.″6 (98 au) and beyond, based on the ATMO 2020 evolutionary models. We detect the inner spiral structures (<0.″5) resolved in both CO and polarimetric H -band observations. We also recover the ring structure of the system at larger separation (0.″5–0.″7) showing a clear southeast/northwest asymmetry. This structure, observed for the first time at L ′ band, remains interior to the dust cavity seen at ALMA, suggesting an efficient dust trapping mechanism at play in the disk. 
    more » « less
  4. null (Ed.)
    We performed a comprehensive demographic study of the CO extent relative to dust of the disk population in the Lupus clouds in order to find indications of dust evolution and possible correlations with other disk properties. We increased the number of disks of the region with measured R CO and R dust from observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array to 42, based on the gas emission in the 12 CO J = 2−1 rotational transition and large dust grains emission at ~0.89 mm. The CO integrated emission map is modeled with an elliptical Gaussian or Nuker function, depending on the quantified residuals; the continuum is fit to a Nuker profile from interferometric modeling. The CO and dust sizes, namely the radii enclosing a certain fraction of the respective total flux (e.g., R 68% ), are inferred from the modeling. The CO emission is more extended than the dust continuum, with a R 68% CO / R 68% dust median value of 2.5, for the entire population and for a subsample with high completeness. Six disks, around 15% of the Lupus disk population, have a size ratio above 4. Based on thermo-chemical modeling, this value can only be explained if the disk has undergone grain growth and radial drift. These disks do not have unusual properties, and their properties spread across the population’s ranges of stellar mass ( M ⋆ ), disk mass ( M disk ), CO and dust sizes ( R CO , R dust ), and mass accretion of the entire population. We searched for correlations between the size ratio and M ⋆ , M disk , R CO , and R dust : only a weak monotonic anticorrelation with the R dust is found, which would imply that dust evolution is more prominent in more compact dusty disks. The lack of strong correlations is remarkable: the sample covers a wide range of stellar and disk properties, and the majority of the disks have very similar size ratios. This result suggests that the bulk of the disk population may behave alike and be in a similar evolutionary stage, independent of the stellar and disk properties. These results should be further investigated, since the optical depth difference between CO and dust continuum might play a major role in the observed size ratios of the population. Lastly, we find a monotonic correlation between the CO flux and the CO size. The results for the majority of the disks are consistent with optically thick emission and an average CO temperature of around 30 K; however, the exact value of the temperature is difficult to constrain. 
    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    While dust disks around optically visible, Class II protostars are found to be vertically thin, when and how dust settles to the midplane are unclear. As part of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array large program, Early Planet Formation in Embedded Disks, we analyze the edge-on, embedded, Class I protostar IRAS 04302+2247, also nicknamed the “Butterfly Star.” With a resolution of 0.″05 (8 au), the 1.3 mm continuum shows an asymmetry along the minor axis that is evidence of an optically thick and geometrically thick disk viewed nearly edge-on. There is no evidence of rings and gaps, which could be due to the lack of radial substructure or the highly inclined and optically thick view. With 0.″1 (16 au) resolution, we resolve the 2D snow surfaces, i.e., the boundary region between freeze-out and sublimation, for12COJ= 2–1,13COJ= 2–1, C18OJ= 2–1,H2COJ= 30,3–20,2, and SOJ= 65–54, and constrain the CO midplane snow line to ∼130 au. We find Keplerian rotation around a protostar of 1.6 ± 0.4Musing C18O. Through forward ray-tracing using RADMC-3D, we find that the dust scale height is ∼6 au at a radius of 100 au from the central star and is comparable to the gas pressure scale height. The results suggest that the dust of this Class I source has yet to vertically settle significantly.

     
    more » « less