skip to main content

This content will become publicly available on July 1, 2023

Title: ALMA reveals extended cool gas and hot ionized outflows in a typical star-forming galaxy at z=7.13
We present spatially-resolved morphological properties of [CII] 158 μm, [OIII] 88 μm, dust, and rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) continuum emission for A1689-zD1, a strongly lensed, sub-L* galaxy at z=7.13, by utilizing deep Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations. While the [OIII] line and UV continuum are compact, the [CII] line is extended up to a radius of r∼12 kpc. Using multi-band rest-frame far-infrared (FIR) continuum data ranging from 52-400 μm, we find an average dust temperature and emissivity index of Tdust=41+17−14 K and β=1.7+1.1−0.7, respectively, across the galaxy. We find slight differences in the dust continuum profiles at different wavelengths, which may indicate that the dust temperature decreases with distance. We map the star-formation rate (SFR) via IR and UV luminosities and determine a total SFR of 37±1 M⊙ yr−1 with an obscured fraction of 87%. While the [OIII] line is a good tracer of the SFR, the [CII] line shows deviation from the local L[CII]-SFR relations in the outskirts of the galaxy. Finally, we observe a clear difference in the line profile between [CII] and [OIII], with significant residuals (∼5σ) in the [OIII] line spectrum after subtracting a single Gaussian model. This suggests a possible more » origin of the extended [CII] structure from the cooling of hot ionized outflows. The extended [CII] and high-velocity [OIII] emission may both contribute in part to the high L[OIII]/L[CII] ratios recently reported in z>6 galaxies. « less
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical journal
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    We present new ALMA observations and physical properties of a Lyman break galaxy at z = 7.15. Our target, B14-65666, has a bright ultra-violet (UV) absolute magnitude, MUV ≈ −22.4, and has been spectroscopically identified in Lyα with a small rest-frame equivalent width of ≈4 Å. A previous Hubble Space TElescope (HST) image has shown that the target is composed of two spatially separated clumps in the rest-frame UV. With ALMA, we have newly detected spatially resolved [O iii] 88 μm, [C ii] 158 μm, and their underlying dust continuum emission. In the whole system of B14-65666, the [O iii] and [C ii] lines have consistentmore »redshifts of 7.1520 ± 0.0003, and the [O iii] luminosity, (34.4 ± 4.1) × 108 L⊙, is about three times higher than the [C ii] luminosity, (11.0 ± 1.4) × 108 L⊙. With our two continuum flux densities, the dust temperature is constrained to be Td ≈ 50–60 K under the assumption of a dust emissivity index of βd = 2.0–1.5, leading to a large total infrared luminosity of LTIR ≈ 1 × 1012 L⊙. Owing to our high spatial resolution data, we show that the [O iii] and [C ii] emission can be spatially decomposed into two clumps associated with the two rest-frame UV clumps whose spectra are kinematically separated by ≈200 km s−1. We also find these two clumps have comparable UV, infrared, [O iii], and [C ii] luminosities. Based on these results, we argue that B14-65666 is a starburst galaxy induced by a major merger. The merger interpretation is also supported by the large specific star formation rate (defined as the star formation rate per unit stellar mass), sSFR $= 260^{+119}_{-57}\:$Gyr−1, inferred from our SED fitting. Probably, a strong UV radiation field caused by intense star formation contributes to its high dust temperature and the [O iii]-to-[C ii] luminosity ratio.

    « less
  2. The [C  II ] 158 μ m line is one of the strongest IR emission lines, which has been shown to trace the star formation rate (SFR) of galaxies in the nearby Universe, and up to z  ∼ 2. Whether this is also the case at higher redshift and in the early Universe remains debated. The ALPINE survey, which targeted 118 star-forming galaxies at 4.4 <   z  <  5.9, provides a new opportunity to examine this question with the first statistical dataset. Using the ALPINE data and earlier measurements from the literature, we examine the relation between the [C  II ]more »luminosity and the SFR over the entire redshift range from z  ∼ 4 − 8. ALPINE galaxies, which are both detected in [C  II ] and in dust continuum, show good agreement with the local L ([CII])–SFR relation. Galaxies undetected in the continuum by ALMA are found to be over-luminous in [C  II ] when the UV SFR is used. After accounting for dust-obscured star formation, by an amount of SFR(IR) ≈ SFR(UV) on average, which results from two different stacking methods and SED fitting, the ALPINE galaxies show an L ([CII])–SFR relation comparable to the local one. When [C  II ] non-detections are taken into account, the slope may be marginally steeper at high- z , although this is still somewhat uncertain. When compared homogeneously, the z  >  6 [C  II ] measurements (detections and upper limits) do not behave very differently to the z  ∼ 4 − 6 data. We find a weak dependence of L ([CII])/SFR on the Ly α equivalent width. Finally, we find that the ratio L ([CII])/ L IR ∼ (1 − 3) × 10 −3 for the ALPINE sources, comparable to that of “normal” galaxies at lower redshift. Our analysis, which includes the largest sample (∼150 galaxies) of [C  II ] measurements at z  > 4 available so far, suggests no or little evolution of the [C  II ]–SFR relation over the last 13 Gyr of cosmic time.« less
  3. The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) Large Program to INvestigate [CII] at Early times (ALPINE) targets the [CII] 158 μ m line and the far-infrared continuum in 118 spectroscopically confirmed star-forming galaxies between z  = 4.4 and z  = 5.9. It represents the first large [CII] statistical sample built in this redshift range. We present details regarding the data processing and the construction of the catalogs. We detected 23 of our targets in the continuum. To derive accurate infrared luminosities and obscured star formation rates (SFRs), we measured the conversion factor from the ALMA 158 μ m rest-frame dust continuum luminosity tomore »the total infrared luminosity ( L IR ) after constraining the dust spectral energy distribution by stacking a photometric sample similar to ALPINE in ancillary single-dish far-infrared data. We found that our continuum detections have a median L IR of 4.4 × 10 11 L ⊙ . We also detected 57 additional continuum sources in our ALMA pointings. They are at a lower redshift than the ALPINE targets, with a mean photometric redshift of 2.5 ± 0.2. We measured the 850 μ m number counts between 0.35 and 3.5 mJy, thus improving the current interferometric constraints in this flux density range. We found a slope break in the number counts around 3 mJy with a shallower slope below this value. More than 40% of the cosmic infrared background is emitted by sources brighter than 0.35 mJy. Finally, we detected the [CII] line in 75 of our targets. Their median [CII] luminosity is 4.8 × 10 8 L ⊙ and their median full width at half maximum is 252 km s −1 . After measuring the mean obscured SFR in various [CII] luminosity bins by stacking ALPINE continuum data, we find a good agreement between our data and the local and predicted SFR– L [CII] relations.« less
  4. The ALMA-ALPINE [CII] survey is aimed at characterizing the properties of a sample of normal star-forming galaxies (SFGs). The ALMA Large Program to INvestigate (ALPINE) features 118 galaxies observed in the [CII]-158 μ m line and far infrared (FIR) continuum emission during the period of rapid mass assembly, right after the end of the HI reionization, at redshifts of 4 <   z  <  6. We present the survey science goals, the observational strategy, and the sample selection of the 118 galaxies observed with ALMA, with an average beam minor axis of about 0.85″, or ∼5 kpc at the median redshiftmore »of the survey. The properties of the sample are described, including spectroscopic redshifts derived from the UV-rest frame, stellar masses, and star-formation rates obtained from a spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting. The observed properties derived from the ALMA data are presented and discussed in terms of the overall detection rate in [CII] and FIR continuum, with the observed signal-to-noise distribution. The sample is representative of the SFG population in the main sequence at these redshifts. The overall detection rate in [CII] is 64% for a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) threshold larger than 3.5 corresponding to a 95% purity (40% detection rate for S / N  >  5). Based on a visual inspection of the [CII] data cubes together with the large wealth of ancillary data, we find a surprisingly wide range of galaxy types, including 40% that are mergers, 20% extended and dispersion-dominated, 13% compact, and 11% rotating discs, with the remaining 16% too faint to be classified. This diversity indicates that a wide array of physical processes must be at work at this epoch, first and foremost, those of galaxy mergers. This paper sets a reference sample for the gas distribution in normal SFGs at 4 <   z  <  6, a key epoch in galaxy assembly, which is ideally suited for studies with future facilities, such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and the Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs).« less
  5. Aims . We present and study spatially resolved imaging obtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) of multiple 12 CO( J  = 6 − 5, 8−7, and 9−8) and two H 2 O(2 02 −1 11 and 2 11 −2 02 ) emission lines and cold dust continuum toward the gravitationally lensed dusty star-forming galaxy SPT 0346-52 at z  = 5.656. Methods . Using a visibility-domain source-plane reconstruction we probe the structure and dynamics of the different components of the interstellar medium (ISM) in this galaxy down to scales of 1 kpc in the source plane. Results . Measurements of the intrinsic sizesmore »of the different CO emission lines indicate that the higher J transitions trace more compact regions in the galaxy. Similarly, we find smaller dust continuum intrinsic sizes with decreasing wavelength, based on observations at rest frame 130, 300, and 450 μ m. The source shows significant velocity structure, and clear asymmetry where an elongated structure is observed in the source plane with significant variations in their reconstructed sizes. This could be attributed to a compact merger or turbulent disk rotation. The differences in velocity structure through the different line tracers, however, hint at the former scenario in agreement with previous [CII] line imaging results. Measurements of the CO line ratios and magnifications yield significant variations as a function of velocity, suggesting that modeling of the ISM using integrated values could be misinterpreted. Modeling of the ISM in SPT 0346-52 based on delensed fluxes indicates a highly dense and warm medium, qualitatively similar to that observed in high-redshift quasar hosts.« less