This paper concerns designing distributed algorithms that are singularly optimal, i.e., algorithms that are simultaneously time and message optimal, for the fundamental leader election problem in networks. Our main result is a randomized distributed leader election algorithm for asynchronous complete networks that is essentially (up to a polylogarithmic factor) singularly optimal. Our algorithm uses O(n) messages with high probability and runs in O(log² n) time (with high probability) to elect a unique leader. The O(n) message complexity should be contrasted with the Ω(n log n) lower bounds for the deterministic message complexity of leader election algorithms (regardless of time), proven by Korach, Moran, and Zaks (TCS, 1989) for asynchronous algorithms and by Afek and Gafni (SIAM J. Comput., 1991) for synchronous networks. Hence, our result also separates the message complexities of randomized and deterministic leader election. More importantly, our (randomized) time complexity of O(log² n) for obtaining the optimal O(n) message complexity is significantly smaller than the longstanding Θ̃(n) time complexity obtained by Afek and Gafni and by Singh (SIAM J. Comput., 1997) for message optimal (deterministic) election in asynchronous networks. Afek and Gafni also conjectured that Θ̃(n) time would be optimal for messageoptimal asynchronous algorithms. Our result shows thatmore »
Singularly Near Optimal Leader Election in Asynchronous Networks
This paper concerns designing distributed algorithms that are singularly optimal, i.e., algorithms that are simultaneously time and message optimal, for the fundamental leader election problem in asynchronous networks.
Kutten et al. (JACM 2015) presented a singularly near optimal randomized leader election algorithm for general synchronous networks that ran in O(D) time and used O(m log n) messages (where D, m, and n are the network’s diameter, number of edges and number of nodes, respectively) with high probability. Both bounds are near optimal (up to a logarithmic factor), since Ω(D) and Ω(m) are the respective lower bounds for time and messages for leader election even for synchronous networks and even for (MonteCarlo) randomized algorithms. On the other hand, for general asynchronous networks, leader election algorithms are only known that are either time or message optimal, but not both. Kutten et al. (DISC 2020) presented a randomized asynchronous leader election algorithm that is singularly near optimal for complete networks, but left open the problem for general networks.
This paper shows that singularly near optimal (up to polylogarithmic factors) bounds can be achieved for general asynchronous networks. We present a randomized singularly near optimal leader election algorithm that runs in O(D + log² n) time more »
 Editors:
 Gilbert, Seth
 Publication Date:
 NSFPAR ID:
 10341131
 Journal Name:
 Proceedings of the International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC) 2021
 Volume:
 209
 Page Range or eLocationID:
 27:127:18
 ISSN:
 18688969
 Sponsoring Org:
 National Science Foundation
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