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  1. We study the communication cost (or message complexity) of fundamental distributed symmetry breaking problems, namely, coloring and MIS. While significant progress has been made in understanding and improving the running time of such problems, much less is known about the message complexity of these problems. In fact, all known algorithms need at least Ω(m) communication for these problems, where m is the number of edges in the graph. We addressthe following question in this paper: can we solve problems such as coloring and MIS using sublinear, i.e., o(m) communication, and if sounder what conditions? In a classical result, Awerbuch, Goldreich, Peleg, and Vainish [JACM 1990] showed that fundamental global problems such asbroadcast and spanning tree construction require at least o(m) messages in the KT-1 Congest model (i.e., Congest model in which nodes have initial knowledge of the neighbors' ID's) when algorithms are restricted to be comparison-based (i.e., algorithms inwhich node ID's can only be compared). Thirty five years after this result, King, Kutten, and Thorup [PODC 2015] showed that onecan solve the above problems using Õ(n) messages (n is the number of nodes in the graph) in Õ(n) rounds in the KT-1 Congest model if non-comparison-based algorithms are permitted. Anmore »important implication of this result is that one can use the synchronous nature of the KT-1 Congest model, using silence to convey information,and solve any graph problem using non-comparison-based algorithms with Õ(n) messages, but this takes an exponential number of rounds. In the asynchronous model, even this is not possible. In contrast, much less is known about the message complexity of local symmetry breaking problems such as coloring and MIS. Our paper fills this gap by presenting the following results. Lower bounds: In the KT-1 CONGEST model, we show that any comparison-based algorithm, even a randomized Monte Carlo algorithm with constant success probability, requires Ω(n 2) messages in the worst case to solve either (△ + 1)-coloring or MIS, regardless of the number of rounds. We also show that Ω(n) is a lower bound on the number ofmessages for any (△ + 1)-coloring or MIS algorithm, even non-comparison-based, and even with nodes having initial knowledge of up to a constant radius. Upper bounds: In the KT-1 CONGEST model, we present the following randomized non-comparison-based algorithms for coloring that, with high probability, use o(m) messages and run in polynomially many rounds.(a) A (△ + 1)-coloring algorithm that uses Õ(n1.5) messages, while running in Õ(D + √ n) rounds, where D is the graph diameter. Our result also implies an asynchronous algorithm for (△ + 1)-coloring with the same message bound but running in Õ(n) rounds. (b) For any constantε > 0, a (1+ε)△-coloring algorithm that uses Õ(n/ε 2 ) messages, while running in Õ(n) rounds. If we increase our input knowledge slightly to radius 2, i.e.,in the KT-2 CONGEST model, we obtain:(c) A randomized comparison-based MIS algorithm that uses Õ(n 1.5) messages. while running in Õ( √n) rounds. While our lower bound results can be viewed as counterparts to the classical result of Awerbuch, Goldreich, Peleg, and Vainish [JACM 90], but for local problems, our algorithms are the first-known algorithms for coloring and MIS that take o(m) messages and run in polynomially many rounds.« less
  2. Gilbert, Seth (Ed.)
    This paper concerns designing distributed algorithms that are singularly optimal, i.e., algorithms that are simultaneously time and message optimal, for the fundamental leader election problem in asynchronous networks. Kutten et al. (JACM 2015) presented a singularly near optimal randomized leader election algorithm for general synchronous networks that ran in O(D) time and used O(m log n) messages (where D, m, and n are the network’s diameter, number of edges and number of nodes, respectively) with high probability. Both bounds are near optimal (up to a logarithmic factor), since Ω(D) and Ω(m) are the respective lower bounds for time and messages for leader election even for synchronous networks and even for (Monte-Carlo) randomized algorithms. On the other hand, for general asynchronous networks, leader election algorithms are only known that are either time or message optimal, but not both. Kutten et al. (DISC 2020) presented a randomized asynchronous leader election algorithm that is singularly near optimal for complete networks, but left open the problem for general networks. This paper shows that singularly near optimal (up to polylogarithmic factors) bounds can be achieved for general asynchronous networks. We present a randomized singularly near optimal leader election algorithm that runs in O(D + log²more »n) time and O(m log² n) messages with high probability. Our result is the first known distributed leader election algorithm for asynchronous networks that is near optimal with respect to both time and message complexity and improves over a long line of results including the classical results of Gallager et al. (ACM TOPLAS, 1983), Peleg (JPDC, 1989), and Awerbuch (STOC, 89).« less
  3. Maximal Independent Set (MIS) is one of the fundamental problems in distributed computing. The round (time) complexity of distributed MIS has traditionally focused on the worst-case time for all nodes to finish. The best-known (randomized) MIS algorithms take O(log n) worst-case rounds on general graphs (where n is the number of nodes). Breaking the O(log n) worst-case bound has been a longstanding open problem, while currently the best-known lower bound is [EQUATION] rounds. Motivated by the goal to reduce total energy consumption in energy-constrained networks such as sensor and ad hoc wireless networks, we take an alternative approach to measuring performance. We focus on minimizing the total (or equivalently, the average) time for all nodes to finish. It is not clear whether the currently best-known algorithms yield constant-round (or even o(log n)) node-averaged round complexity for MIS in general graphs. We posit the sleeping model, a generalization of the traditional model, that allows nodes to enter either "sleep" or "waking" states at any round. While waking state corresponds to the default state in the traditional model, in sleeping state a node is "offline", i.e., it does not send or receive messages (and messages sent to it are dropped as well)more »and does not incur any time, communication, or local computation cost. Hence, in this model, only rounds in which a node is awake are counted and we are interested in minimizing the average as well as the worst-case number of rounds a node spends in the awake state, besides the traditional worst-case round complexity (i.e., the rounds for all nodes to finish including both the awake and sleeping rounds). Our main result is that we show that MIS can be solved in (expected) O(1) rounds under node-averaged awake complexity measure in the sleeping model. In particular, we present a randomized distributed algorithm for MIS that has expected O(1)-rounds node-averaged awake complexity and, with high probability1 has O(log n)-rounds worst-case awake complexity and O(log3.41 n)-rounds worst-case complexity. Our work is a step towards understanding the node-averaged complexity of MIS both in the traditional and sleeping models, as well as designing energy-efficient distributed algorithms for energy-constrained networks.« less
  4. We study smoothed analysis of distributed graph algorithms, focusing on the fundamental minimum spanning tree (MST) problem. With the goal of studying the time complexity of distributed MST as a function of the "perturbation" of the input graph, we posit a smoothing model that is parameterized by a smoothing parameter 0 ≤ ϵ(n) ≤ 1 which controls the amount of random edges that can be added to an input graph G per round. Informally, ϵ(n) is the probability (typically a small function of n, e.g., n--¼) that a random edge can be added to a node per round. The added random edges, once they are added, can be used (only) for communication. We show upper and lower bounds on the time complexity of distributed MST in the above smoothing model. We present a distributed algorithm that, with high probability, 1 computes an MST and runs in Õ(min{1/√ϵ(n)2O(√log n), D+ √n}) rounds2 where ϵ is the smoothing parameter, D is the network diameter and n is the network size. To complement our upper bound, we also show a lower bound of Ω(min{1/√ϵ(n), D + √n}). We note that the upper and lower bounds essentially match except for a multiplicative 2O(√log n)more »polylog(n) factor. Our work can be considered as a first step in understanding the smoothed complexity of distributed graph algorithms.« less
  5. This paper concerns designing distributed algorithms that are singularly optimal, i.e., algorithms that are simultaneously time and message optimal, for the fundamental leader election problem in networks. Our main result is a randomized distributed leader election algorithm for asynchronous complete networks that is essentially (up to a polylogarithmic factor) singularly optimal. Our algorithm uses O(n) messages with high probability and runs in O(log² n) time (with high probability) to elect a unique leader. The O(n) message complexity should be contrasted with the Ω(n log n) lower bounds for the deterministic message complexity of leader election algorithms (regardless of time), proven by Korach, Moran, and Zaks (TCS, 1989) for asynchronous algorithms and by Afek and Gafni (SIAM J. Comput., 1991) for synchronous networks. Hence, our result also separates the message complexities of randomized and deterministic leader election. More importantly, our (randomized) time complexity of O(log² n) for obtaining the optimal O(n) message complexity is significantly smaller than the long-standing Θ̃(n) time complexity obtained by Afek and Gafni and by Singh (SIAM J. Comput., 1997) for message optimal (deterministic) election in asynchronous networks. Afek and Gafni also conjectured that Θ̃(n) time would be optimal for message-optimal asynchronous algorithms. Our result shows thatmore »randomized algorithms are significantly faster. Turning to synchronous complete networks, Afek and Gafni showed an essentially singularly optimal deterministic algorithm with O(log n) time and O(n log n) messages. Ramanathan et al. (Distrib. Comput. 2007) used randomization to improve the message complexity, and showed a randomized algorithm with O(n) messages but still with O(log n) time (with failure probability O(1 / log^{Ω(1)}n)). Our second result shows that synchronous complete networks admit a tightly singularly optimal randomized algorithm, with O(1) time and O(n) messages (both bounds are optimal). Moreover, our algorithm’s time bound holds with certainty, and its message bound holds with high probability, i.e., 1-1/n^c for constant c. Our results demonstrate that leader election can be solved in a simultaneously message and time-efficient manner in asynchronous complete networks using randomization. It is open whether this is possible in asynchronous general networks.« less
  6. This paper focuses on showing time-message trade-offs in distributed algorithms for fundamental problems such as leader election, broadcast, spanning tree (ST), minimum spanning tree (MST), minimum cut, and many graph verification problems. We consider the synchronous CONGEST distributed computing model and assume that each node has initial knowledge of itself and the identifiers of its neighbors - the so-called KT_1 model - a well-studied model that also naturally arises in many applications. Recently, it has been established that one can obtain (almost) singularly optimal algorithms, i.e., algorithms that have simultaneously optimal time and message complexity (up to polylogarithmic factors), for many fundamental problems in the standard KT_0 model (where nodes have only local knowledge of themselves and not their neighbors). The situation is less clear in the KT_1 model. In this paper, we present several new distributed algorithms in the KT_1 model that trade off between time and message complexity. Our distributed algorithms are based on a uniform and general approach which involves constructing a sparsified spanning subgraph of the original graph - called a danner - that trades off the number of edges with the diameter of the sparsifier. In particular, a key ingredient of our approach is amore »distributed randomized algorithm that, given a graph G and any delta in [0,1], with high probability constructs a danner that has diameter O~(D + n^{1-delta}) and O~(min{m,n^{1+delta}}) edges in O~(n^{1-delta}) rounds while using O~(min{m,n^{1+delta}}) messages, where n, m, and D are the number of nodes, edges, and the diameter of G, respectively. Using our danner construction, we present a family of distributed randomized algorithms for various fundamental problems that exhibit a trade-off between message and time complexity and that improve over previous results. Specifically, we show the following results (all hold with high probability) in the KT_1 model, which subsume and improve over prior bounds in the KT_1 model (King et al., PODC 2014 and Awerbuch et al., JACM 1990) and the KT_0 model (Kutten et al., JACM 2015, Pandurangan et al., STOC 2017 and Elkin, PODC 2017): 1) Leader Election, Broadcast, and ST. These problems can be solved in O~(D+n^{1-delta}) rounds using O~(min{m,n^{1+delta}}) messages for any delta in [0,1]. 2) MST and Connectivity. These problems can be solved in O~(D+n^{1-delta}) rounds using O~(min{m,n^{1+delta}}) messages for any delta in [0,0.5]. In particular, for delta = 0.5 we obtain a distributed MST algorithm that runs in optimal O~(D+sqrt{n}) rounds and uses O~(min{m,n^{3/2}}) messages. We note that this improves over the singularly optimal algorithm in the KT_0 model that uses O~(D+sqrt{n}) rounds and O~(m) messages. 3) Minimum Cut. O(log n)-approximate minimum cut can be solved in O~(D+n^{1-delta}) rounds using O~(min{m,n^{1+delta}}) messages for any delta in [0,0.5]. 4) Graph Verification Problems such as Bipartiteness, Spanning Subgraph etc. These can be solved in O~(D+n^{1-delta}) rounds using O~(min{m,n^{1+delta}}) messages for any delta in [0,0.5].« less