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Title: Critical Determinants in ER-Golgi Trafficking of Enzymes Involved in Glycosylation
All living cells generate structurally complex and compositionally diverse spectra of glycans and glycoconjugates, critical for organismal evolution, development, functioning, defense, and survival. Glycosyltransferases (GTs) catalyze the glycosylation reaction between activated sugar and acceptor substrate to synthesize a wide variety of glycans. GTs are distributed among more than 130 gene families and are involved in metabolic processes, signal pathways, cell wall polysaccharide biosynthesis, cell development, and growth. Glycosylation mainly takes place in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi, where GTs and glycosidases involved in this process are distributed to different locations of these compartments and sequentially add or cleave various sugars to synthesize the final products of glycosylation. Therefore, delivery of these enzymes to the proper locations, the glycosylation sites, in the cell is essential and involves numerous secretory pathway components. This review presents the current state of knowledge about the mechanisms of protein trafficking between ER and Golgi. It describes what is known about the primary components of protein sorting machinery and trafficking, which are recognition sites on the proteins that are important for their interaction with the critical components of this machinery.  more » « less
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