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Title: Tombusviruses Target a Major Crossroad in the Endocytic and Recycling Pathways via Co-opting Rab7 Small GTPase
ABSTRACT Positive-strand RNA viruses induce the biogenesis of unique membranous organelles called viral replication organelles (VROs), which perform virus replication in infected cells. Tombusviruses have been shown to rewire cellular trafficking and metabolic pathways, remodel host membranes, and recruit multiple host factors to support viral replication. In this work, we demonstrate that tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) and the closely related carnation Italian ringspot virus (CIRV) usurp Rab7 small GTPase to facilitate building VROs in the surrogate host yeast and in plants. Depletion of Rab7 small GTPase, which is needed for late endosome and retromer biogenesis, strongly inhibits TBSV and CIRV replication in yeast and in planta. The viral p33 replication protein interacts with Rab7 small GTPase, which results in the relocalization of Rab7 into the large VROs. Similar to the depletion of Rab7, the deletion of either MON1 or CCZ1 heterodimeric GEFs (guanine nucleotide exchange factors) of Rab7 inhibited TBSV RNA replication in yeast. This suggests that the activated Rab7 has proviral functions. We show that the proviral function of Rab7 is to facilitate the recruitment of the retromer complex and the endosomal sorting nexin-BAR proteins into VROs. We demonstrate that TBSV p33-driven retargeting of Rab7 into VROs results in the delivery of several retromer cargos with proviral functions. These proteins include lipid enzymes, such as Vps34 PI3K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase), PI4Kα-like Stt4 phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase, and Psd2 phosphatidylserine decarboxylase. In summary, based on these and previous findings, we propose that subversion of Rab7 into VROs allows tombusviruses to reroute endocytic and recycling trafficking to support virus replication. IMPORTANCE The replication of positive-strand RNA viruses depends on the biogenesis of viral replication organelles (VROs). However, the formation of membranous VROs is not well understood yet. Using tombusviruses and the model host yeast, we discovered that the endosomal Rab7 small GTPase is critical for the formation of VROs. Interaction between Rab7 and the TBSV p33 replication protein leads to the recruitment of Rab7 into VROs. TBSV-driven usurping of Rab7 has proviral functions through facilitating the delivery of the co-opted retromer complex, sorting nexin-BAR proteins, and lipid enzymes into VROs to create an optimal milieu for virus replication. These results open up the possibility that controlling cellular Rab7 activities in infected cells could be a target for new antiviral strategies.  more » « less
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Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ;
Simon, Anne E.
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Journal of Virology
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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  1. Biogenesis of viral replication organelles (VROs) is critical for replication of positive-strand RNA viruses. In this work, we demonstrate that tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) and the closely related carnation Italian ringspot virus (CIRV) hijack the retromer to facilitate building VROs in the surrogate host yeast and in plants. Depletion of retromer proteins, which are needed for biogenesis of endosomal tubular transport carriers, strongly inhibits the peroxisome-associated TBSV and the mitochondria-associated CIRV replication in yeast andin planta.In vitro reconstitution revealed the need for the retromer for the full activity of the viral replicase. The viral p33 replication protein interacts with the retromer complex, including Vps26, Vps29, and Vps35. We demonstrate that TBSV p33-driven retargeting of the retromer into VROs results in delivery of critical retromer cargoes, such as 1) Psd2 phosphatidylserine decarboxylase, 2) Vps34 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and 3) phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (PI4Kα-like). The recruitment of these cellular enzymes by the co-opted retromer is critical for de novo production and enrichment of phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipid, phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate [PI(3)P], and phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate [PI(4)P] phosphoinositides within the VROs. Co-opting cellular enzymes required for lipid biosynthesis and lipid modifications suggest that tombusviruses could create an optimized lipid/membrane microenvironment for efficient VRO assembly and protection of the viral RNAs during virus replication. We propose that compartmentalization of these lipid enzymes within VROs helps tombusviruses replicate in an efficient milieu. In summary, tombusviruses target a major crossroad in the secretory and recycling pathways via coopting the retromer complex and the tubular endosomal network to build VROs in infected cells.

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  2. Wang, Aiming (Ed.)
    Positive-strand (+)RNA viruses take advantage of the host cells by subverting a long list of host protein factors and transport vesicles and cellular organelles to build membranous viral replication organelles (VROs) that support robust RNA replication. How RNA viruses accomplish major recruitment tasks of a large number of cellular proteins are intensively studied. In case of tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), a single viral replication protein, named p33, carries out most of the recruitment duties. Yet, it is currently unknown how the viral p33 replication protein, which is membrane associated, is capable of the rapid and efficient recruitment of numerous cytosolic host proteins to facilitate the formation of large VROs. In this paper, we show that, TBSV p33 molecules do not recruit each cytosolic host factor one-by-one into VROs, but p33 targets a cytosolic protein interaction hub, namely Rpn11, which interacts with numerous other cytosolic proteins. The highly conserved Rpn11, called POH1 in humans, is the metalloprotease subunit of the proteasome, which couples deubiquitination and degradation of proteasome substrates. However, TBSV takes advantage of a noncanonical function of Rpn11 by exploiting Rpn11’s interaction with highly abundant cytosolic proteins and the actin network. We provide supporting evidence that the co-opted Rpn11 in coordination with the subverted actin network is used for delivering cytosolic proteins, such as glycolytic and fermentation enzymes, which are readily subverted into VROs to produce ATP locally in support of VRO formation, viral replicase complex assembly and viral RNA replication. Using several approaches, including knockdown of Rpn11 level, sequestering Rpn11 from the cytosol into the nucleus in plants or temperature-sensitive mutation in Rpn11 in yeast, we show the inhibition of recruitment of glycolytic and fermentation enzymes into VROs. The Rpn11-assisted recruitment of the cytosolic enzymes by p33, however, also requires the combined and coordinated role of the subverted actin network. Accordingly, stabilization of the actin filaments by expression of the Legionella VipA effector in yeast and plant, or via a mutation of ACT1 in yeast resulted in more efficient and rapid recruitment of Rpn11 and the selected glycolytic and fermentation enzymes into VROs. On the contrary, destruction of the actin filaments via expression of the Legionella RavK effector led to poor recruitment of Rpn11 and glycolytic and fermentation enzymes. Finally, we confirmed the key roles of Rpn11 and the actin filaments in situ ATP production within TBSV VROs via using a FRET-based ATP-biosensor. The novel emerging theme is that TBSV targets Rpn11 cytosolic protein interaction hub driven by the p33 replication protein and aided by the subverted actin filaments to deliver several co-opted cytosolic pro-viral factors for robust replication within VROs. 
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  3. Simon, Anne E. (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT Positive-strand RNA viruses build large viral replication organelles (VROs) with the help of coopted host factors. Previous works on tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) showed that the p33 replication protein subverts the actin cytoskeleton by sequestering the actin depolymerization factor, cofilin, to reduce actin filament disassembly and stabilize the actin filaments. Then, TBSV utilizes the stable actin filaments as “trafficking highways” to deliver proviral host factors into the protective VROs. In this work, we show that the cellular intrinsic restriction factors (CIRFs) also use the actin network to reach VROs and inhibit viral replication. Disruption of the actin filaments by expression of the Legionella RavK protease inhibited the recruitment of plant CIRFs, including the CypA-like Roc1 and Roc2 cyclophilins, and the antiviral DDX17-like RH30 DEAD box helicase into VROs. Conversely, temperature-sensitive actin and cofilin mutant yeasts with stabilized actin filaments reduced the levels of copurified CIRFs, including cyclophilins Cpr1, CypA, Cyp40-like Cpr7, cochaperones Sgt2, the Hop-like Sti1, and the RH30 helicase in viral replicase preparations. Dependence of the recruitment of both proviral and antiviral host factors into VROs on the actin network suggests that there is a race going on between TBSV and its host to exploit the actin network and ultimately to gain the upper hand during infection. We propose that, in the highly susceptible plants, tombusviruses efficiently subvert the actin network for rapid delivery of proviral host factors into VROs and ultimately overcome host restriction factors via winning the recruitment race and overwhelming cellular defenses. IMPORTANCE Replication of positive-strand RNA viruses is affected by the recruitment of host components, which provide either proviral or antiviral functions during virus invasion of infected cells. The delivery of these host factors into the viral replication organelles (VROs), which represent the sites of viral RNA replication, depends on the cellular actin network. Using TBSV, we uncover a race between the virus and its host with the actin network as the central player. We find that in susceptible plants, tombusviruses exploit the actin network for rapid delivery of proviral host factors into VROs and ultimately overcome host restriction factors. In summary, this work demonstrates that the actin network plays a major role in determining the outcome of viral infections in plants. 
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  4. Wang, Aiming (Ed.)
    Tombusviruses, similar to other (+)RNA viruses, exploit the host cells by co-opting numerous host components and rewiring cellular pathways to build extensive virus-induced replication organelles (VROs) in the cytosol of the infected cells. Most molecular resources are suboptimal in susceptible cells and therefore, tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) drives intensive remodeling and subversion of many cellular processes. The authors discovered that the nuclear centromeric CenH3 histone variant (Cse4p in yeast, CENP-A in humans) plays a major role in tombusvirus replication in plants and in the yeast model host. We find that over-expression of CenH3 greatly interferes with tombusvirus replication, whereas mutation or knockdown of CenH3 enhances TBSV replication in yeast and plants. CenH3 binds to the viral RNA and acts as an RNA chaperone. Although these data support a restriction role of CenH3 in tombusvirus replication, we demonstrate that by partially sequestering CenH3 into VROs, TBSV indirectly alters selective gene expression of the host, leading to more abundant protein pool. This in turn helps TBSV to subvert pro-viral host factors into replication. We show this through the example of hypoxia factors, glycolytic and fermentation enzymes, which are exploited more efficiently by tombusviruses to produce abundant ATP locally within the VROs in infected cells. Altogether, we propose that subversion of CenH3/Cse4p from the nucleus into cytosolic VROs facilitates transcriptional changes in the cells, which ultimately leads to more efficient ATP generation in situ within VROs by the co-opted glycolytic enzymes to support the energy requirement of virus replication. In summary, CenH3 plays both pro-viral and restriction functions during tombusvirus replication. This is a surprising novel role for a nuclear histone variant in cytosolic RNA virus replication. 
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  5. Simon, Anne E. (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) of virus origin accumulate in cells infected by many positive-strand (+) RNA viruses to bolster viral infectivity. Their biogenesis mostly utilizes exoribonucleases of host cells that degrade viral genomic or subgenomic RNAs in the 5′-to-3′ direction until being stalled by well-defined RNA structures. Here, we report a viral lncRNA that is produced by a novel replication-dependent mechanism. This lncRNA corresponds to the last 283 nucleotides of the turnip crinkle virus (TCV) genome and hence is designated tiny TCV subgenomic RNA (ttsgR). ttsgR accumulated to high levels in TCV-infected Nicotiana benthamiana cells when the TCV-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), also known as p88, was overexpressed. Both (+) and (−) strand forms of ttsgR were produced in a manner dependent on the RdRp functionality. Strikingly, templates as short as ttsgR itself were sufficient to program ttsgR amplification, as long as the TCV-encoded replication proteins p28 and p88 were provided in trans . Consistent with its replicational origin, ttsgR accumulation required a 5′ terminal carmovirus consensus sequence (CCS), a sequence motif shared by genomic and subgenomic RNAs of many viruses phylogenetically related to TCV. More importantly, introducing a new CCS motif elsewhere in the TCV genome was alone sufficient to cause the emergence of another lncRNA. Finally, abolishing ttsgR by mutating its 5′ CCS gave rise to a TCV mutant that failed to compete with wild-type TCV in Arabidopsis . Collectively, our results unveil a replication-dependent mechanism for the biogenesis of viral lncRNAs, thus suggesting that multiple mechanisms, individually or in combination, may be responsible for viral lncRNA production. IMPORTANCE Many positive-strand (+) RNA viruses produce long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) during the process of cellular infections and mobilize these lncRNAs to counteract antiviral defenses, as well as coordinate the translation of viral proteins. Most viral lncRNAs arise from 5′-to-3′ degradation of longer viral RNAs being stalled at stable secondary structures. Here, we report a viral lncRNA that is produced by the replication machinery of turnip crinkle virus (TCV). This lncRNA, designated ttsgR, shares the terminal characteristics with TCV genomic and subgenomic RNAs and overaccumulates in the presence of moderately overexpressed TCV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Furthermore, templates that are of similar sizes as ttsgR are readily replicated by TCV replication proteins (p28 and RdRp) provided from nonviral sources. In summary, this study establishes an approach for uncovering low abundance viral lncRNAs, and characterizes a replicating TCV lncRNA. Similar investigations on human-pathogenic (+) RNA viruses could yield novel therapeutic targets. 
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