Alkali and alkaline earth metal adducts of a branched glycan, XXXG, were analyzed with helium charge transfer dissociation (He‐CTD) and low‐energy collision‐induced dissociation (LE‐CID) to investigate if metalation would impact the type of fragments generated and the structural characterization of the analyte. The studied adducts included 1+ and 2+ precursors involving one or more of the cations: H+, Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+. Regardless of the metal adduct, He‐CTD generated abundant and numerous glycosidic and cross‐ring cleavages that were structurally informative and able to identify the 1,4‐linkage and 1,6‐branching patterns. In contrast, the LE‐CID spectra mainly contained glycosidic cleavages, consecutive fragments, and numerous neutral losses, which complicated spectral interpretation. LE‐CID of [M + K + H]2+and [M + Na]+precursors generated a few cross‐ring cleavages, but they were not sufficient to identify the 1,4‐linkage and 1,6‐branching pattern of the XXXG xyloglucan. He‐CTD predominantly generated 1+ fragments from 1+ precursors and 2+ product ions from 2+ precursors, although both LE‐CID and He‐CTD were able to generate 1+ product ions from 2+ adducts of magnesium and calcium. The singly charged fragments derive from the loss of H+from the metalated product ions and the formation of a protonated complementary product ion; such observations are similar to previous reports formore »
- Award ID(s):
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- 483 to 495
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
More Like this
Differentiation of leucine and isoleucine residues in peptides using charge transfer dissociation mass spectrometry (CTD‐MS)
The function of a protein or the binding affinity of an antibody can be substantially altered by the replacement of leucine (Leu) with isoleucine (Ile), and vice versa, so the ability to identify the correct isomer using mass spectrometry can help resolve important biological questions. Tandem mass spectrometry approaches for Leu/Ile (Xle) discrimination have been developed, but they all have certain limitations.
Four model peptides and two wild‐type peptide sequences containing either Leu or Ile residues were subjected to charge transfer dissociation (CTD) mass spectrometry on a modified three‐dimensional ion trap. The peptides were analyzed in both the 1+ and 2+ charge states, and the results were compared to conventional collision‐induced dissociation spectra of the same peptides obtained using the same instrument.
CTD resulted in 100% sequence coverage for each of the studied peptides and provided a variety of side‐chain cleavages, including
d, wand vions. Using CTD, reliable dand wions of Xle residues were observed more than 80% of the time. When present, dions are typically greater than 10% of the abundance of the corresponding aions from which they derive, and wions are typically more abundant than the zions from which they derive. Conclusions
CTD has the benefit of being applicable to both 1+ and 2+ precursor ions, and themore »
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are linear polysaccharides found in a variety of organisms. GAGs contribute to biochemical pathway regulation, cell signaling, and disease progression. GAG sequence information is imperative for determining structure‐function relationships. Recent advances in electron‐activation techniques paired with high‐resolution mass spectrometry allow for full sequencing of GAG structures. Electron detachment dissociation (EDD) and negative electron transfer dissociation (NETD) are two electron‐activation methods that have been utilized for GAG characterization. Both methods produce an abundance of informative glycosidic and cross‐ring fragment ions without producing a high degree of sulfate decomposition. Here, we provide detailed protocols for using EDD and NETD to sequence GAG chains. In addition to protocols directly involving performing these MS/MS methods, protocols include sample preparation, method development, internal calibration, and data analysis. © 2021 Wiley Periodicals LLC.
This article was corrected on 27 July 2022. See the end of the full text for details.
Basic Protocol 1: Preparation of glycosaminoglycan samples Basic Protocol 2: FTICR method development Basic Protocol 3: Internal calibration with NaTFA Basic Protocol 4: Electron Detachment Dissociation (EDD) of GAG samples Basic Protocol 5: Negative electron transfer dissociation (NETD) of GAG samples Basic Protocol 6: Analysis of MS/MS data
Differentiating aspartic acid isomers and epimers with charge transfer dissociation mass spectrometry (CTD-MS)The ability to understand the function of a protein often relies on knowledge about its detailed structure. Sometimes, seemingly insignificant changes in the primary structure of a protein, like an amino acid substitution, can completely disrupt a protein's function. Long-lived proteins (LLPs), which can be found in critical areas of the human body, like the brain and eye, are especially susceptible to primary sequence alterations in the form of isomerization and epimerization. Because long-lived proteins do not have the corrective regeneration capabilities of most other proteins, points of isomerism and epimerization that accumulate within the proteins can severely hamper their functions and can lead to serious diseases like Alzheimer's disease, cancer and cataracts. Whereas tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) in the form of collision-induced dissociation (CID) generally excels at peptide characterization, MS/MS often struggles to pinpoint modifications within LLPs, especially when the differences are only isomeric or epimeric in nature. One of the most prevalent and difficult-to-identify modifications is that of aspartic acid between its four isomeric forms: l -Asp, l -isoAsp, d -Asp, and d -isoAsp. In this study, peptides containing isomers of Asp were analyzed by charge transfer dissociation (CTD) mass spectrometry to identify spectral features that could discriminatemore »
Ion dissociation is the usual basis for tandem MS analysis but a significant limitation is that only charged fragments from ion dissociation events are detected while neutral fragments are simply lost. This study reports our continued effort to solve this problem by developing atmospheric pressure neutral reionization mass spectrometry (APNR). In APNR, analyte ions are thermally dissociated (atmospheric pressure thermal dissociation, APTD) followed by soft reionization using electrosonic spray ionization (ESSI). Our results show that APNR is a powerful method for structural analysis of various biomolecules such as peptides, saccharides and nucleotides, as well as for elucidating unimolecular ion dissociation mechanisms. It was found that APNR provides extensive fragment ions including a series of y ions in peptides, which benefit sequencing and provide complementary information to collision induced dissociation (CID). In particular, direct cleavage of disulfide bonds of peptides occurs during APTD, facilitating peptide sequencing and disulfide bond mapping. In addition, many cross-ring cleavage fragments are detected during APNR analysis of oligosaccharides, indicating that the APTD dissociation process is energetic and potentially useful for identifying glycan linkage sites. Fragmentation patterns of oligosaccharide isomers can be used for their differentiation. Furthermore, in the cases of dissociation of nucleotides and synthetic naphthoylindolemore »