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- Garrido, Daniel
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- National Science Foundation
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null (Ed.)Salmonella enterica is one of the most common bacterial foodborne pathogens in the United States, causing illnesses that range from self-limiting gastroenteritis to more severe, life threatening invasive disease. Many Salmonella strains contain plasmids that carry virulence, antimicrobial resistance, and/or transfer genes which allow them to adapt to diverse environments, and these can include incompatibility group (Inc) FIB plasmids. This study was undertaken to evaluate the genomic and phenotypic characteristics of IncFIB-positive Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates from food animal sources, to identify their plasmid content, assess antimicrobial resistance and virulence properties, and compare their genotypic isolates with more recently isolated S. Typhimurium isolates from food animal sources. Methods: We identified 71 S. Typhimurium isolates that carried IncFIB plasmids. These isolates were subjected to whole genome sequencing and evaluated for bacteriocin production, antimicrobial susceptibility, the ability to transfer resistance plasmids, and a subset was evaluated for their ability to invade and persist in intestinal human epithelial cells. Results: Approximately 30% of isolates (n = 21) displayed bacteriocin inhibition of Escherichia coli strain J53. Bioinformatic analyses using PlasmidFinder software confirmed that all isolates contained IncFIB plasmids along with multiple other plasmid replicon types. Comparative analyses showed that all strains carried multiple antimicrobial resistance genes and virulence factors including iron acquisition genes, such as iucABCD (75%), iutA (94%), sitABCD (76%) and sitAB (100%). In 17 cases (71%), IncFIB plasmids, along with other plasmid replicon types, were able to conjugally transfer antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes to the susceptible recipient strain. For ten strains, persistence cell counts (27%) were noted to be significantly higher than invasion bacterial cell counts. When the genome sequences of the study isolates collected from 1998–2003 were compared to those published from subsequent years (2005–2018), overlapping genotypes were found, indicating the perseverance of IncFIB positive strains in food animal populations. This study confirms that IncFIB plasmids can play a potential role in disseminating antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes amongst bacteria from several food animal species.more » « less
Modern large‐scale agricultural practices that incorporate high density farming with subtherapeutic antibiotic dosing are considered a major contributor to the rise of antibiotic‐resistant bacterial infections of humans with species of
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The acquisition of antimicrobial resistance (AR) genes has rendered important pathogens nearly or fully unresponsive to antibiotics. It has been suggested that pathogens acquire AR traits from the gut microbiota, which collectively serve as a global reservoir for AR genes conferring resistance to all classes of antibiotics. However, only a subset of AR genes confers resistance to clinically relevant antibiotics, and, although these AR gene profiles are well-characterized for common pathogens, less is known about their taxonomic associations and transfer potential within diverse members of the gut microbiota. We examined a collection of 14,850 human metagenomes and 1666 environmental metagenomes from 33 countries, in addition to nearly 600,000 isolate genomes, to gain insight into the global prevalence and taxonomic range of clinically relevant AR genes. We find that several of the most concerning AR genes, such as those encoding the cephalosporinase
CTX-Mand carbapenemases KPC, IMP, NDM, and VIM, remain taxonomically restricted to Proteobacteria. Even cfiA, the most common carbapenemase gene within the human gut microbiome, remains tightly restricted to Bacteroides, despite being found on a mobilizable plasmid. We confirmed these findings in gut microbiome samples from India, Honduras, Pakistan, and Vietnam, using a high-sensitivity single-cell fusion PCR approach. Focusing on a set of genes encoding carbapenemases and cephalosporinases, thus far restricted to Bacteroidesspecies, we find that few mutations are required for efficacy in a different phylum, raising the question of why these genes have not spread more widely. Overall, these data suggest that globally prevalent, clinically relevant AR genes have not yet established themselves across diverse commensal gut microbiota.
Staphylococcus aureus are human facultative pathogenic bacteria and can be found as contaminants in the environment. The aim of our study was to determine whether methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolated from coastal beach and river waters, anchialine pools, sand, and wastewater on the island of Hawaiʻi, Hawaiʻi, are a potential health risk. Samples were collected from three regions on Hawaiʻi Island from July to December 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic and were characterized using whole-genome sequencing (WGS). From WGS data, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), SCCmec type, antimicrobial resistance genes, virulence factors, and plasmids were identified. Of the 361 samples, 98.1% were positive for Staphylococcus spp. and 7.2% were S. aureus positive (n = 26); nine MRSA and 27 MSSA strains were characterized; multiple isolates were chosen from the same sample in two sand and seven coastal beach water samples. The nine MRSA isolates were multi-drug resistant (6–9 genes) sequence type (ST) 8, clonal complex (CC) 8, SCCmec type IVa (USA300 clone), and were clonally related (0–16 SNP differences), and carried 16–19 virulence factors. The 27 MSSA isolates were grouped into eight CCs and 12 STs. Seventy-eight percent of the MSSA isolates carried 1–5 different antibiotic resistance genes and carried 5–19 virulence factors. We found S. aureus in coastal beach and river waters, anchialine pools, and sand at locations with limited human activity on the island of Hawaiʻi. This may be a public health hazard.more » « less
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