Observational signatures of gamma-rays from bright blazars and wakefield theory
ABSTRACT Gamma-ray observations have revealed strong variability in blazar luminosities in the gamma-ray band over time-scales as short as minutes. We show, for the first time, that the correlation of the spectrum with intensity is consistent with the behaviour of the luminosity variation of blazar spectral energy distributions (SEDs) along a blazar sequence for low synchrotron peak blazars. We show that the observational signatures of variability with flux are consistent with wakefield acceleration of electrons initiated by instabilities in the blazar accretion disc. This mechanism reproduces the observed time variations as short as 100 s. The wakefield mechanism also predicts a reduction of the electron spectral index with increased gamma-ray luminosity, which could be detected in higher energy observations well above the inverse Compton peak.
Authors:
; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10347847
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume:
493
Issue:
2
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
2229 to 2237
ISSN:
0035-8711
National Science Foundation
##### More Like this
1. ABSTRACT Relativistic jets from supermassive black holes are among the most powerful and luminous astrophysical systems in Universe. We propose that the open magnetic field lines through the black hole, which drive a strongly magnetized jet, may have their polarity reversing over time scales related to the growth of the magnetorotational dynamo in the disc, resulting in dissipative structures in the jet characterized by reversing toroidal field polarities, referred to as ‘stripes’. The magnetic reconnection between the stripes dissipates the magnetic energy and powers jet acceleration. The striped jet model can explain the jet acceleration, large-scale jet emission, and blazar emission signatures consistently in a unified physical picture. Specifically, we find that the jet accelerates to the bulk Lorentz factor Γ ≳ 10 within 1-parsec distance from the central engine. The acceleration slows down but continues at larger distances, with intrinsic acceleration rate $\dot{\Gamma }/\Gamma$ between $0.0005$ and $0.005~\rm {yr^{-1}}$ at tens of parsecs, which is in very good agreement with recent radio observations. Magnetic reconnection continuously accelerates non-thermal particles over large distances from the central engine, resulting in the core-shift effect and overall flat-to-inverted synchrotron spectrum. The large-scale spectral luminosity peak νpeak is antiproportional to the location of themore »
2. ABSTRACT

Relativistic amplification boosts the contribution of the jet base to the total emission in blazars, thus making single-dish observations useful and practical to characterize their physical state, particularly during episodes of enhanced multiwavelength activity. Following the detection of a new gamma-ray source by Fermi-LAT in 2017 July, we observed S4 0444+63 in order to secure its identification as a gamma-ray blazar. We conducted observations with the Medicina and Noto radio telescopes at 5, 8, and 24 GHz for a total of 12 epochs between 2017 August 1 and 2018 September 22. We carried out the observations with on-the-fly cross-scans and reduced the data with our newly developed Cross-scan Analysis Pipeline, which we present here in detail for the first time. We found the source to be in an elevated state of emission at radio wavelength, compared to historical values, which lasted for several months. The maximum luminosity was reached on 2018 May 16 at 24 GHz, with $L_{24}=(1.7\pm 0.3)\times 10^{27}\ \mathrm{W\, Hz}^{-1}$; the spectral index was found to evolve from slightly rising to slightly steep. Besides the new observations, which have proved to be an effective and efficient tool to secure the identification of the source, additional single dish and very longmore »

3. Abstract We report on a long-lasting, elevated gamma-ray flux state from VER J0521+211 observed by VERITAS, MAGIC, and Fermi-LAT in 2013 and 2014. The peak integral flux above 200 GeV measured with the nightly binned light curve is (8.8 ± 0.4) × 10 −7 photons m −2 s −1 , or ∼37% of the Crab Nebula flux. Multiwavelength observations from X-ray, UV, and optical instruments are also presented. A moderate correlation between the X-ray and TeV gamma-ray fluxes was observed, and the X-ray spectrum appeared harder when the flux was higher. Using the gamma-ray spectrum and four models of the extragalactic background light (EBL), a conservative 95% confidence upper limit on the redshift of the source was found to be z ≤ 0.31. Unlike the gamma-ray and X-ray bands, the optical flux did not increase significantly during the studied period compared to the archival low-state flux. The spectral variability from optical to X-ray bands suggests that the synchrotron peak of the spectral energy distribution (SED) may become broader during flaring states, which can be adequately described with a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model varying the high-energy end of the underlying particle spectrum. The synchrotron peak frequency of the SED and themore »
4. ABSTRACT

We report multiwavelength observations of the gravitationally lensed blazar QSO B0218+357 in 2016–2020. Optical, X-ray, and GeV flares were detected. The contemporaneous MAGIC observations do not show significant very high energy (VHE; ≳100 GeV) gamma-ray emission. The lack of enhancement in radio emission measured by The Owens Valley Radio Observatory indicates the multizone nature of the emission from this object. We constrain the VHE duty cycle of the source to be <16 2014-like flares per year (95 per cent confidence). For the first time for this source, a broad-band low-state spectral energy distribution is constructed with a deep exposure up to the VHE range. A flux upper limit on the low-state VHE gamma-ray emission of an order of magnitude below that of the 2014 flare is determined. The X-ray data are used to fit the column density of (8.10 ± 0.93stat) × 1021 cm−2 of the dust in the lensing galaxy. VLBI observations show a clear radio core and jet components in both lensed images, yet no significant movement of the components is seen. The radio measurements are used to model the source-lens-observer geometry and determine the magnifications and time delays for both components. The quiescent emission is modelled with the high-energy bump explained asmore »

5. ABSTRACT

We present multiwavelength observations of supernova (SN) 2017hcc with the Chandra X-ray telescope and the X-ray telescope onboard Swift (Swift-XRT) in X-ray bands, with the Spitzer and the TripleSpec spectrometer in near-infrared (IR) and mid-IR bands and with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) for radio bands. The X-ray observations cover a period of 29 to 1310 d, with the first X-ray detection on day 727 with the Chandra. The SN was subsequently detected in the VLA radio bands from day 1000 onwards. While the radio data are sparse, synchrotron-self absorption is clearly ruled out as the radio absorption mechanism. The near- and the mid-IR observations showed that late time IR emission dominates the spectral energy distribution. The early properties of SN 2017hcc are consistent with shock breakout into a dense mass-loss region, with $\dot{M} \sim 0.1$ M⊙ yr−1 for a decade. At few 100 d, the mass-loss rate declined to ∼0.02 M⊙ yr−1, as determined from the dominant IR luminosity. In addition, radio data also allowed us to calculate a mass-loss rate at around day 1000, which is two orders of magnitude smaller than the mass-loss rate estimates around the bolometric peak. These values indicate that the SN progenitor underwent anmore »